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Chapter 13


1) What was the outcome of the Battle of Tours? How did it affect Christianity? The battle ended in the favor of Charles Martel, who, in driving out the Muslims, kept Christianity a thriving religion.
2) Define Middle Ages. The middle period of Western and European History.
3) Who was Charlemagne? The grandson of Charles Martel; the man who united everyone under one empire and was crowned empire.
4) Name the three roots of the Middle Ages. The Classical Heritage of Rome. The Beliefs of the Roman-Catholic Church. The Customs of Various Germanic Tribes.
5) What are three ways civilization declined after the Roman Empire fell? Loss of a common language, decline in learning, disruption of trade, downfall of cities, and population shifts.
6) Define fief. An amount of land given to a vassal from their lord.
7) Define manor. The lord's estate.
8) Who were a knight's three masters? His earthly lord, his heavenly lord, and his chosen lady.
9) What were the three social classes of the feudal system? Those who worked - the serfs - and those who prayed - the nobles - and those who fought - the knights.
10) What were the obligations of a serf to their lord? In return for shelter and food, they had to work and produce a stable profit for the lord and master of their manor.
11) Define chivalry. The code of conduct set for knights.
12) What were the ideals knights were made to live by? Compassion, bravery, loyalty and honesty, ecetera.
13) Name the steps in the process of becoming a knight. Page Squire Knight
14) What were the qualifications needed for becoming a knight? Males born of noble birth.
15) Name two themes of medieval literature. Love and knighthood.
16) What were differences and similarities in the lives of a noblewoman and a peasant woman? Although they were both in little power, peasant women worked long and hard with little education whereas a noblewoman had a cushier lifestyle and a better education.
17) Define clergy. Members of the church, including bishops and priests.
18) What was the Holy Roman Empire's original name? The Roman Empire of the German Nation.
19) Why did lay investiture cause struggle between kings and popes? It caused church officials to grow unhappier that kings had more control over clergy and their offices.
20) What were matters covered my canon law? Marriage, religious practices, and violation were a few matters covered by canon law.
21) Which invading peoples caused turmoil in the 800s? The Vikings, also known as Norsemen.
22) What was Gelasius' two-swords theory? One sword was politics and one sword was religion. Each sword was equal and bowed to the other.
23) Define monastery. Religious communities built by the Christians.
24) Define vassal. Someone who was given a fief, or land, by their lord.
25) Define serf. Someone who could not legally leave their birthplace.
Created by: 20ecooke