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PSSA Terms

Literature Terms and Definitions for PSSA's

What is Author's Purpose? The author's reason for writing the selection. Always ask yourself- is the purpose to entertain, to inform, or to pursuade? Skim the selection and attempt to determine the author's purpose before you read the selection.
What is Autobiography? A story of the person's life written by the person.
What is biography? The story of a person's life written by another person.
What is Characterization? The Method an author uses to give info about the character to the reader. The methods are (1) character's apperance (2) character's actions (3) character's thoughts (4) character's conversations and (5) reactions of others towards character.
What is Direct Characterzation? When the author of the story tells the reader directly about the actions, personality, snd physical appearence of the character.
What is Indirect Characterzation? When the author doesn't directly tell the reader abut the character. Instead the reader has to infer what the character is like based on the character's thought's actions, and conversations.
What is Compare and Contrast? Compare means to show similairities and contrast means to show differences.
What is the Climax? the monment when the action of the story becomes at its highest point. This usually occurs at the end of the story right before the resolution.
What is the Conclusion? The end of the reading selection.
What is the Conflict? Struggle between opposing forces in literature.
What is Character vs. Character? aA conflict between characters such as family conflict, trouble with a bully, or diffuclties in romance. Or a character struggling against nature, or a character may also have a struggle within themself. All of those are Character vs. Character.
What are Connections? Text to text, text to world, and text to self. The reader can connect what he/she has read with something else.
What is Context Clues? Information within the reading selection that helps the reader the meaning of challenging words.
What is Diolauge? The actual words/conversation the character says to another character.
What does Evaluate Mean? To examine and judge.
What does Explicit mean? Referring to specific text that is included in the reading passage or directions.
What is the Exposition? The backround information that the author provides about the setting, plot, character, or other essential story elements.
WHat is Expositionary Text? Text written to convey and explain information about a specific topic.
What is a Fable? A narritive intended to convey a moral or lesson to the reader.
What is Fact vs. Opinion? Something that can be proven to be true, or is it just someone else's point of view?
What is the falling action? The part of the story following the climaxwhere there is a sharpdecline in dramatic tension; this occurs just before the resolution.
What is fiction? Any story that is the product of imagination rather than fact.
Waht is figurative language? Language that can not be taken literally because it was written to create a special effect.
What is a flashback? Technique in which the author interrupts the plot of the story to recreate an incedent of an earlier time; flashback is often used to provide additional info to the reader.
What is forshadowing? Technique in which the author provides the reader with clues about events that will happen later in the story.
What is generalizations? When you make assumptions about differnet events and/or characters and apply them to new situations.
What is genre? caterogories in literature such as biography, mystery, historical, sports, and romance.
What is a graphic organizer? An orginational picture, such as Venn diagram or webbin, that helps the learner identify important elements.
What is a homophone or homonym? two or more words that are pronounced alike but have different meanings. Ex: too, to, two
What is a hyperbole? an exaggerated statement used to make a strong effect. Ex: My dog is so ugly, we have to pay people to pet him.
What is imagery? Words and phrases used specifically to help the reader to imagine each of the senses: smell, touch, sight, hearing, smell.
What is an inference? Reading between the lines. Talking what the author wrote and adding it to what you already know to make an assumpion.
What is irony? A difference between what is expected and what actually happens, 2 types, dramatic irony and situational irony.
What is dramatic irony? Occurs when there is an event that is the direct oppisite of what the reader and characters thought would happen.
What is situational irony? Occurs when there is a controdiction between what the character thinks and what the reader knows to be true.
What is a metophor? A comparison between two ulike things without eusing the words lie or as.Ex: Joe is a lion on the playing field.
What is the mood? The overall feeling created by the author's words.
Who is the narrorarer? The speaker of the story.
What is nonfiction? Writing that is true and the purpose is to inform. Nonfiction communicates knowledge about real people, events, and/or situations.
What is otomatapia? Words who sounds express the meaning.Ex: buzz, crash, hiss, boom
What is an oxymoron? Putting to controdictiary words together.Ex: jumbo shrimp, plastic glasses, terribly pleased, pretty ugly
What is papaphrasing? Restate in your own words. Includes more than just the main ideas.
What is the plot? The events that occur in the beginning of the story with the setting and ending withe the resolution.
What is point of view? Perspective from which the story is being told.
What is the protagonist? The character in the story that is the "good guy", or the one whom the author identifies.
What is personification? Giving life like characteristics to a nonliving thing.Ex. The tree shivered in the wind.
What is the resolution? Occurs at the end of the story and includes the story's action after the climax.
What is the rising action? The part of the story, including the exposition, which builds to the climax.
What is a root word? A word to which prefixes and suffixes are added.
What is sequencial order? Order in which the events in the story are presented to the reader.
What is setting? The enviornment of thime and place where the action of the story takes place.
What is a simile? A compairison between to unlike things using the words like or as.Ex. The thunder sounded like a roaring cannon.
What is a suffix? Letters placed at the end of a word to change it's meaning.
What is a summary? A concise explanation of a reading selection. The summary only contains main ideas.
What are supporting detials? Detials that support or back up the main idea of the passage.
What is a symbol? An image, object or character that stands for an idea beyond it's literal meaning.
What is a synonym? Two hat have highly or more words that have highly similar meanings.
What is theme? The underlying message of the selection that the author is trying to convey or communicate to the reader. Theme may be thought as the lesson or moral of the story.
What is tone? The clues of the story that suggest the writer's own attitude toward elements in the story.
What is visulization? The ability to "see" what you're reading.
What is Voice? The author's style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique.
What is alliteration? The repitition of beginning consonant sounds in words in a sentence.
What is an antonym? A word that is the oppisite of another word.
What is an Antagonist? Main character in opposition to the protaginist. Sometimes not a person but an obsticle such as a force of nature, socity, or inner conflict.
Created by: 2014DurMarM on 2009-01-27

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