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Anatomy and Physiolo

skeletal and muscles systems

Bones are made of 2 types of tissue compact and spongy
Which one has red bone marrow? spongy bone contains red bone marrow
What does red bone marrow make? red bone marrow richly supplies the spongy bone with blood and also produces blood cells for user throughout the body
Bones are classified as: long, short, flat, and irregular irregular bones are differently shaped and are not classified as long, short, or flat. they include the hip bones, vertebrae, and various bones in the skull long bones: are longer than they are wide short bones: are shaped like cubes and are found primarily in the wrist and ankles flat bones: are thin, flat, and curved they form the ribs, breastbones, cranium, and bones of the shoulder girdle
Which of these contains red bone marrow? medullary cavity; axial skeleton (skull, spine, and rib cage), girdles (pelvis and shoulders), at the ends of (epiphysis) the humerus and femur
Name the parts of the long bones and know where they grow periosteum-is a tough, fibrous, connective tissue membrane that covers the outside of the diaphysis articular cartilage-is found on the outer surface of the epiphysis diaphysis-the long shaft bone; humerus and femur epiphysis-the enlarged ends of the long bone epiphyseal disc-located near the proximal and distal ends of long bones medullary cavity-is the hollow center of the diaphysis
What is the process of tissue in embryo becoming bone? intramembranous ossification
What is it made of before? cartilage and connective tissue to bone
What is the name of the fibrous connective tissue between the skull bones called? fontanels
Why is it necessary to separate the bones? because they need to be able to compress during child birth so that the still thin cranial bones so that it can fit through the cervix during birth
Where do the long bones grow? arms, legs, hands, fingers, thighs, forearms, palms and instep
What hormones makes this process slow and eventually stop? growth hormones, thyroxine, parathyroid hormone, insulin (which helps regulate cell division protein synthesis, calcium metabolism, and energy production.) sex hormones stops the growth of the long bones
How many facial bones are there? 14
How many cranial bones are there? 8
Why do you need para nasal sinuses? lightening the weight of the head, humidifying and heating inhaled air, increasing the resonance of speech and serving as a crumple zone to protect vital structures in the event of facial trauma
How many ribs? 25
Why are some called true and false? true ribs-articulate directly with the manubrium and body of the sternum by means of costal cartilages false ribs-are attached indirectly to the sternum by cartilage or do not attach at all
What do ribs do? they protect the heart and lungs and any other abdominal cavity organs such as the liver and spleen
How many of the different sections of vertebrae? cervical-7 thoracic-12 lumbar-5 sacrum-1 coccyx-1
Bones are connected to bones with ligaments and muscles are connected to bones with tendons bones are connected to bones with ligaments, muscles are connected to bones with tendons; muscles are connected to muscle with fascia (aponeurosis)
What makes up the axial skeleton cranium and facial bones
How many normal curves in vertebrae? 4-cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacrak
Name 3 abnormal curves in vertebrae scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis
Ribs attach to what vertebrae? thoracic vertebrae
What is synovial fluid? lubricates the bones in the joint, thereby decreasing the friction with joint
What are the 3 types of joints? immovable, slightly movable, and freely movable
What is arthritis? inflammation of the joints
Movement away from the body? abduction
Toward the body? adduction
Pulling away? extension
Pulling towards? flexion
Rotating upwards? hyperextension
Rotating downward? plantar flexion
How many types of muscles? 600 plus
Muscle movements is with several muscles. What is chief called? prime mover
What are two movement types? synergists and antagonists
The tendons must have a stationary point and a point of insertion. stationary point is the stationary bone; the stationary bone can also be immovable; the origin of the muscle attaches to the stationary bone
Insertion is where it moves insertion is attaches to the more movable bones
Muscles move by pulling, not pushing when muscles contract then the opposite muscle flexes or extends
Tendons and ligaments are made of fibrous connective tissue tendons help anchor muscles firmly to bone and the muscles is usually has at least 2 tendons, each attached to a different bone
Tendons and ligaments are made of fibrous connective tissue ligaments cross joints and attach bones to each other, they also contain more elastic fibers then tendons which lets them stretch more easily
Muscles in a slight state of contraction are in good muscle tone when the muscle is in a slight state of contraction it refers to a normal continuous state of partial muscle contraction, tone is caused by the contraction of different groups of muscle fibers within a whole muscle; to maintain muscle tone
one group of muscle fibers contract first and as these fibers began to relax, a second group of muscle fibers contract. The pattern is called contraction and relaxation because it continues to maintain muscle tone
Energy sources for muscles are glycogen is stored, creatine made from excess, Need of ATP muscles use a lot of ATP when they contract so it has to be replaced in 3 ways:by is the resting muscle produces excess ATP, use some of it to make creatine phosphate that is a storage form of energy that can be used to replenish ATP quickly during muscle
that is a storage form of energy that can be used to replenish ATP quickly during muscles contraction, 2)glycolysis is a series of chemical reactions that break down glucose anaerobically (w/out oxygen), generating small amounts of ATP
generating small amounts of ATP, glucose is obtained by 2 sources: the blood glucose and the glycogen that is stored in the skeleton muscles, the glycolysis provides enough energy (ATP) for an additional 30-40 seconds of intense muscle activity
Energy sources for muscles are glycogen is stored, creatine made from excess, Need of ATP enters the mitochondria and is broken down completely to CO2, H2O and ATP, this generates a large amount of ATP compared with the glycolysis 3)aerobic (oxygen-required) metabolism after 30-40 seconds, the supply of ATP from glycolysis is depleted and continued muscle activity relies on ATP production by aerobic respiration, the presence of oxygen, pyruvic acid (formed from glycolysis)
When oxygen is not present or is diminished oxygen debt occurs: lactic acid is present glycolysis also produces lactic acid by some of the lactic acid can be picked up by the blood and transported to the liver, where it is used to make glucose
When oxygen is not present or is diminished oxygen debt occurs: lactic acid it is rapidly removed from the muscles&metabolized; the latent soreness is not attributed no to lactic acid but to tears of connective tissue in the muscles&muscle musclecellmembr the lactic acid is a end-product of glycolysis and its brief accumulation in the muscle tissue is thought to be the cause of the immediate soreness
What are some of the ways muscles are named? they are named by their size, shaped, orientation fibers, location, number of origins, origins and insertion, and muscle action.
Created by: Bearlover