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Human Physiology

Exam 2

Which type of muscle is innervated by a somatic motor neuron? skeletal
Cardiac muscle is under what type of control? involuntary
Which muscle type lines the urinary bladder? smooth
Which muscle type is striated? skeletal and cardiac
All muscle have the function of: providing some type force.
What are three basic types of muscle? skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Primarily for the movement of bones. Striated because of the parallel arrangement of fibers in the sarcomeres and is able to generate force along a single axis. Primarily controlled by the somatic nervous system (under voluntary control). Skeletal Muscle
Lacks sarcomeres, has thick & thin filaments, undergoes a crossbridge cycle, found in sheets surrounding hollow organs and tubessuch as the stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus, blood vessels, lungs.controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Smooth Muscle
Found only in heart, striated & functions similar to skeletal muscle, has gap junctions between cells like single-unit smooth muscle. branched so force generates in multiple directions, pacemaker activity, myogenic regulated by autonomic nervous system Cardiac Muscle
collection of muscle cells Muscle
bundles of muscle cells together with their associated connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve cells within a muscle Fascicle
single muscle cell, fusion of multiple myoblasts during development; these are excitable cells Muscle fiber (myofiber)
muscle fiber's plasma membrane Sarcolemma
semifluid cytoplasm of a muscle cell Sarcoplasm
rod-like bundle that contains the contractile machinery (actin and myosin), runs along length of muscle fiber Myofibril
saclike membranous network that surrounds myofibrils and releases calcium ions to trigger muscle contractions Sarcoplasmic reticulum
fundamental functional unit of contraction found in myofibrils that repeats over and over; bordered on each side by Z-lines (protein that runs perpendicular to the muscle axis) which anchor actin during contraction Sarcomere
actin (contractile protein) + troponin + tropomyosin; actin is formed from a double chain of globular proteins that is wound with tropomyosin (a fibrous molecule) to form a strand; troponin (a globular complex of three proteins) holds tropomyosin to actin Thin filaments
formed from hundreds of myosin (contractile protein) molecules; mysoin is formed from two filamentous protein tails and two globular heads arranged to resemble two golf clubs wound around each other Thick filaments
proteins for actin attachment Z line
Name the two primary contractile proteins in a sarcomere during muscle contraction, actin and myosin
What step is necessary to break a cross-bridge during muscle contraction? An ATP molecule causes a conformational change in the myosin head which reduces its affinity for actin.
What occurs when calcium ions bind to troponin? tropomyosin rolls away from binding sites on actin
What neurotransmitter is used at skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions? acetylcholine
What two proteins slide past each other to shorten the sarcomere? actin & myosin
Which blood vessel type is highly permeable and allows many substances to move into and out of the blood? capillary
Into which vessel does blood flow upon leaving the left ventricle? aorta
Which valve is responsible for supressing backflow of blood from the right ventricle? right av valve
What does the P wave signify in an ECG? atrial depolarization
What triggers action potentials in cardiac muscle cells? action potential in pacemaker cells, conductile cells, and surrounding cardiac muscle
Which component of blood makes up most of the blood volume? Plasma
Where are new erythrocytes made? bone marrow
Which type of leukocytes do phagocytosis? neutrophils only
Which type of blood cell is the most abundant? erythrocytes
Which factor converts fibrinogen into fibrin? thrombin
What causes repolarization in both cardiac muscles and pacemaker cells? potassium ions exit the cell
How does cardiac output chenge when heart rate increases? it increases
Transportation, regulation, and protection Functions of the cardiovascular system
What are the components of the cardiovascular system? circulatory and lymphatic
Series of tubes connected to a pump and filled with fluid designed to carry substances long distances in the body. circulatory system
Silent partner to the circulatory system. Series of tubes that collect fluid that leaks from the cardiovascular system through a series of capillaries. White blood cells are here. lymphatic system
Composed of plasma and formed elements blood
The total volume of blood in a normal, healthy adult human is about? 5.5 L
55% of total blood volume; about 3 L plasma
90 % of plasma; functions as medium to dissolve solutes and suspend formed elements water
8 % of plasma, most synthesized by liver proteins
albumin, globulins, fibrinogen & other enzymes, hormones, antibacterial molecules plasma proteins
60% of plasma proteins; responsible for plasma osmotic pressure albumin
36% of plasma proteins; clotting proteins, antibodies secreted by WBCs during immune response, transfer proteins that move substances that don't interact well with water globulins
Important to blood clotting fibrinogen
water, proteins, electrolytes, respiratory gases, serum, make up what? plasma
cations, anions make up? electrolytes
sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, trace metals cations
chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate anions
oxygen, carbon dioxide are: respiratory gases
plasma from which fibrinogen and other clotting proteins have been removed serum
These cells are 45% of totabl blood volume; most abundant; lack nucleus, mitochondria, & other organelles; biconcave disk; last 120 days; made in bone marrow; 5,000,000 per cubic mm Erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Less than 1% of total blood volume, DNA samples taken from these, 5 types Leukocytes(White blood cells)
Granulocyte, 50-80% of all WBCs circulate in blood 7-10 hours then to tissues, phagocyte neutrophils
Granulocyte, 1-4% of all WBCs, can do phagocytosis, attack parasites to large for phagocytosis, can trigger allergic reactions Eosinophils
Granulocyte, less than 1% of all WBCs, nonphagocytosis; release toxic molecules to damage invaders, release histamine, heparin, & other chemicals that exacerbate allergic reactions basophils
Agranulocyte, 2-8%of all WBCs, circulate in blood a few hours, then migrate to tissues where they become larger and develop into macrophages Monocytes
20-40% of all WBCs, 99% of cells in interstitial fluid, specific immune responses, can become B cells that secrete antibodies, t-cells, or null cells. lymphocytes
less than 1% of total blood volume,100,000-500,000 per cubic mm of blood; form when fragments of megakarycytes break off, mitochondria, smooth ER, cytoplasmic granules, blood clotting platelets
where are erythrocytes in the first trimester of pregnancy yolk sac
where are erythrocytes in the second trimester of pregnancy primarily liver, some spleen and lymph nodes
where are erythrocytes in the last month of gestation during pregnancy to 5 years after birth bone marrow all bones
where are erythrocytes in 5-20 years after birth vertebrae, sternum, ribs, ilia, long bones
where are erythrocytes in20 years after birth til death vertebrae, sternum, ribs, ilia
What are some factors that stimulate erythoprotein production Hypoxia, high testosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, prostaglandins
What are some factors that decrease oxygenation? low blood volume, anemia, low hemoglobin, poor blood flow, pulmonary disease, very high altitude
The cessation of bleeding; accompanied by 3 reinforcing steps; vascular spasms, platelet plugs, blood clot or thrombus hemostasis
intrinsically occur in response to damage to a blood vessel and are reinforced by feedback from sympathetic nervous system to increase resistance and decrease blood flow; minimizes blood loss but does not stop it vascular spasms
no striations, actin & myosin, involuntary, autonomic, varicosities-diffuse, SR & ECF, calmodulin, gap junctions, pacemaker activity, slow, no recruitment smooth single unit muscle
striations, actin & myosin, voluntary, somatic, neuromuscular junction-specific, SR, troponin, fast, recruitment skeletal muscle
no striations, actin & myosin, involuntary, autonomic, varicosities-diffuse, SR & ECF, calmodulin, no gap junctions, no pacemaker activity, slow, recruitment smooth multi-unit muscle
striations, actin & myosin, involuntary, autonomic, varicosities-diffuse, epinephrine, SR & ECF, troponin, gap junctions, pacemaker activity, intermediate, no recruitment cardiac muscle
Process that generates force so that muscles can pull on things & move them. sliding-filament model of muscle contraction
When action potential reaches the axon terminal of the somatic motor neuron , the change triggers voltage-gated calcium ion channels in the somatic motor neuron to open
When voltage-gated calcium ion channels open in a skeletal muscle action potential calcium ions move down their electrochemical gradient from outside to inside
What is the average concentration of red blood cells in blood? 5,000,000 per cubic mm
How could one increse cardiac output increase heart rate, stroke volume or both
what occurs during blood clotting vasoconstriction, platelet plug formation, blood clotting
Where does blood go after the right atrium right ventricle
What type of feedback loop controls blood clotting positive
The process of myosin binding & unbinding to actin is called: cross-bridge cycle
Created by: klmd3014