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Hx Study Guide

Includes main events of medical history

Who isolated radium in 1910? Marie Curie
Who established the patterns of heredity? Gregory Mendel
Who developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796? Edward Jenner
Who described the circulation of blood to and from the heart? William Harvey
Who began public health and sanitation systems? Romans
Who discovered X-rays in 1895? William Roentgen
Who is the father of medicine? Hippocrates
Who discovered penicillin in 1928? Sir Alexander Fleming
Which artists used dissection to draw the human body? Leonardo da Vinci and Michaelangelo
During which time was emphasis placed on saving the soul and the study of medicine was prohibited? The Dark Ages
Who founded the American Red Cross in 1881? Clara Barton
Who were the earliest known people to maintain accurate health records? The Egyptians
Who began pasteurizing milk to kill bacteria? Louis Pasteur
Who created the rabies vaccine? Louis Pasteur
Who used acupuncture to relieve pain and congestion? The Chinese
Who developed the culture plate method to identify pathogens? Robert Koch
Who is the founder of modern nursing? Florence Nightingale
Who began using disinfectants and antiseptics during surgery? Joseph Lister
Who created the first mercury thermometer? Gabriel Fahrenheit
Who developed the polio vaccine in 1952? Jonas Salk
Who began the use of animal gut for suture material? Rhazes
Who created the germ theory? Ignaz Sammelweis and Louis Pasteur
What is the germ theory? Some diseases are caused by microorganisms that are transferred from one host to another
What is a retrovirus? Targets a host cell and alters its DNA. After that, every time the host cell reproduces, it spreads the virus
What is a bacteriostatic? Stops bacteria from spreading but does not necessarily kill it
What is a bactericidal? A substance that kills bacteria
What is an oncogene? A gene that can transform a cell into a tumor cell
What did ancient people think was the cause of disease and illness? Evil spirits and demons
What four things did Hippocrates stress to help the body heal itself? Good diet, fresh air, cleanliness, and exercise
What was the main method for curing illnesses during the Dark Ages? Prayer and divine intervention
Name four diseases that shortened the life span of individuals during the Middle Ages? Smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, and typhoid
Why was dissection a great advance in health care during the Renaissance? It allowed a better understanding of anatomy and physiology. It allowed doctors to see and examine the organs and the body systems
What did apothecaries use to make most medications in the 17th century? Different herbal mixtures
Who invented the microscope? Why is this invention important? Zacharias Janssen. With microscopes, scientists were able to discover the existence of microorganisms, study the structure of cells, and see the smallest parts of plants, animals, and fungi.
Who invented the stethoscope? Why is this invention so important? René Laennec. With stethoscopes, doctors were able to listen to problems/sounds in the body with ease
Who is Andreas Vesalius? Belgian physician that decided to study anatomy by dissecting human bodies. Created first accurate description of the inside of the human body
Who is Karl Landsteiner? Discovered that there are different blood groups. Discovered blood transfusion was only safe between people who have compatible blood types
What did Dr. Horace Wells, William Morton, and Crawford Long do? Experimented with different substances thought to have the ability to reduce pain. Discovered an effective anesthesia.
What did James Lind do? His work advanced the practice of preventive medicine and improved nutrition
What did Howard Florey and Erns Chain do? They continued Fleming's research and created Sulfa drugs
What did Gerhard Domagk do? Created bacteriostatics.
What did Sir Frederick Grant Banting, Charles Best, John James, and Richard Macleod do? They discovered that diabetes could be treated with insulin shots.
What did Michael Bishop and Harold Varmus do? Discovered the genetic basis of cancer
What did Luk Montaghier and Robert Galo do? Discovered the cause of AIDS and how it spreads. Discovered that it is a retrovirus
What did Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins do? Discovered vitamins. He also discovered the amino acid tryptophan, in 1901.
What did Joseph Murray do? Performed the first successful human kidney transplant.
Created by: Raqi2001