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Chapter 2 vocaulary

aquifers any geological formation containing or conducting ground water, especially one that supplies the water for wells, springs, etc.
asthenosphere a zone of hot, partly melted rock that flows and can be deformed like soft plastic.
bedrock solid rock underlying loose deposits such as soil or aluminum. soil formation begins when bedrock is slowly broken down.
climate physical properties of the troposphere of an area based on analysis of its weather records over a long period.(an areas climate are its average temperature, with, its seasonal varications, and the average amount and distribution of precipitation)
continental crust the part of the earths crust that underlies the continents (including the continental shelves extending into the oceans)
convergent plates when an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate
core inner zone of the earth. it consists of a solid inner core and a liquid outer core.
crust solid outer zone of the earth. it consist of oceanic crust and continental crust.
currents mass movements of surface water produced by prevailing winds blowing over the oceans .
dam a structure built across a river to control the river's flow or to create a reservoir.
desalination purification of salt water or brackish (slightly salty) water by removal of dissolved salts.
divergent plates when oceanic plates move apart from one another.
drainage basin land area that delivers water, sediment, and dissolved substances via small streams to a major stream (river).
drought condition in which an area does not get enough water because of lower than normal precipitation or higher than normal temperature that increase evaporation.
earthquake shaking of the ground resulting from the fracturing and displacement of rock, which produces a fault, or from subsequent movement along a fault.
ENSO el Niño- southern oscillation, a large scale weather phenomenon that occurs every few years when prevailing winds in the tropical pacific ocean weakened and changed direction. the resulting above-average warming of pacific waters can affect pop. of marine
erosion process or group of processes by which loose or consolidated earth materials are dissolved, loosened, or worn away and removed from one place and deposited in another.
floodplain flat valley floor next to a stream channel. for legal purposes the team often applies to any low area that has the potential for flooding, including certain costal areas.
geology study of the earths dynamic history. geologists study and analyze rocks and the features and process of the earths interior surface.
global warming warming of the earths lower atmosphere (troposphere) because of increase in the concentrations of one or more greenhouse gases. it can last for decades to thousands of years.
greenhouse effect natural effect that releases heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the earths surface. water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and other gases in the lower atmosphere absorb some of the infrared radiation (heat) radiated by the earths surface.
greenhouse gases gases in the earths lower atmosphere that causes the greenhouse effect. EX: carbon dioxide, ozone methane, water vapor, nitrous oxide.
groundwater water that sinks into the soil and is stored in slowly flowing and slowly renewed underground reservoirs called aquifers; underground water in the zone of saturation, below the water table
horizons most mature soils contain at least 3 horizontal layers, or horizons, each with a district texture and composition that varies with different types of soils
igneous rock rock formed when molten rock material (magma) wells up from the earths interior, cools, and solidifies into rock masses.
lithosphere outer shell of the earth, composed of the crest and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle outside of the asthenosphere: material found in the earths plates.
magma molten rock below the earths surface.
mantle zone of the earths interior between its core and its crust.
metamorphic rock rock produced when a preexisting rock is subjected to high temperatures (which may cause it to melt it partially), high pressures, chemically active fluids, or a combination of those agents.
mineral any naturally occurring inorganic substance found in the earths crust in a form as a crystalline solid.
mineral resource concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the earth's crust in a form of and amount such that extracting and converting it into useful materials or items is currently or potentially profitable.
oceanic crust part of the earths crust which underlies the ocean basins and makes up 71% of the earths crust.
oceanic ridge
rainshadow effect
reliable surface runoff
rock cycle
sedimentary rock
subduction zone
tectonic plates
transform fault
water table
weathering pg. 281
weathering pg. 348
zone of saturation
Created by: kim_dezwart