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8th Science

2015 Chapter 1 - A Beka Book

Science the study of the matter and movement of God's physical creation
Matter the substance of the physical world; anything that occupies space or has substance is matter
Pedology the study of soil
Scientific method an organized way for scientist to gather and pursue scientific knowledge
The three main components of the scientific method are ___, ___, and ___. hypothesizing, observing, experimenting
Hypothesis a simple explanation to a problem
Hypothesizing to speculate, or think seriously, about the objects and events of nature and then formulating a hypothesis
Observation involves gathering data (facts) about nature
Experimentation to methodically test a hypotheses
You must test your experiment ___ ___ ___. more than once
What are the six steps of the scientific method? 1. State the problem 2. Gather information 3. Formulate a hypothesis 4. Test the hypothesis 5. Record and analyze 6. State the conclusions
Scientific law this is formed when a scientific theory has never been proven false
Experimental groups the groups on which a test is performed
Control group The group used as a standard for comparison
By comparing the results of the ___ and ___ ___, you gain support for weather or not your hypothesis is accurate. experimental, control group
Constants conditions that stay the same in both the control group and the experimental group
Variables conditions present only in an experimental group
When testing a hypothesis, use ___ variable for each experiment. one
Atoms the most basic units of matter
Atoms linked together in groups are called ___. molecules
Mass measures the amount of matter in an object
Weight measures the pull of gravity on an object
Volume the amount of space that matter takes up
Density measures how tightly packed matter is
Soil is composed of ___ and ____ materials. organic, mineral
Organic material primarily derived from living organisms
Mineral materials primarily derived from nonliving matter, such as minerals and rocks
Decompose break down
Humus a substance composed of decayed organisms' particles
Humus is important for what? enriching the soil with nutrients; it also stores large amounts of water as a sponge would
Recycling reusing old materials
Topsoil the top two to six inches of soil; easily eroded by rain and is quickly depleted of nutrients by plants
Weathering the processes that break rocks down into soil
Subsoil lighter colored than topsoil because it contains less organic material
Bedrock the layer of rocks under the subsoil
The combination of ___ ____ of mineral particles determines the texture of the soil. different sizes
Sand course and gritty with large, easily seen particles; allows air in the soil
Silt has particles smaller that sands'
Clay has the smallest particles
Silty soil contains a high weight percentage of silt
Clayey soil has a high weight percentage of clay, therefore this soil is the most difficult for water and air to move through, but it does easily allow water and nutrients to be absorbed
Loam contains a range of sand, silt, clay, and humus mixtures
The color of soil depends on what? the amount of organic matter and types of minerals present
Munsell charts provide standard names and descriptions of colors
What are the three different ways scientist use to define soil? acidic, neutral, and basic
pH scale scientists use this to express the degree of acidity or basicity
Most plants grow best in soil that is what? neutral or slightly acidic
Nutrients nourishing substances
The three most important mineral nutrients for plants are ___, ___, and ___. nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
Elements substances composed of only one type of atom
Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are called what? the primary plant food elements
Phosphates phosphorus is generally in the form of this in fertilizers
Potash the form potassium is usually in in fertilizers
Nitrogen affects the growth of plants; stimulates rapid growth of leaves
Nitrogen cycle when nitrogen is moved from the air to the soil to be used by plants and then back to the air
Compounds substances containing two or more elements bonded together
Nitrates carried to the soil by rain
Ammonia a basic compound of nitrogen and hydrogen
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria converts elemental nitrogen into nitrogen compounds
Nodules bumps on roots
Nitrifying bacteria converts ammonia to nitrates
Denitrifying bacteria returns nitrogen to the atmosphere by converting nitrogen from nitrates into atmospheric nitrogen
Pedologist scientists who study soil
Anaerobic to thrive without oxygen
Phosphorus essential for cell division and growth and promotes plant maturation
Potassium primary function is to contribute to the general health of the plant and improve disease resistance; it encourages root growth and fruit formation
If no ___ is available to the roots, the plant will suffocate. air
Pore spaces hold oxygen from the air in the soil
Impermeable nonporous
Saturated when the pore spaces are completely filled with water
Ground water any collected water below the soil's surface
Water table the upper surface of ground water
The depth of the water table depends on what two factors? the size and number of pores in the rocks and soil, and the amount of recent rainfall
Aquifer porous rock or a gravel-soil mixture that can hold water
Artesian well a "self pumping" well
The ___ a straw is, the higher the level of water inside of it will be. thinner
Capillarity (or capillarity action) the upward movement of water through a tiny space in response to surface tension
Created by: nelsonclan