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Chapter 7

Urinary system

calyx or calix (plural: calyces or calices) Cup-like collecting region of the renal pelvis.
catheter Tube for injecting or removing fluids
cortex Outer region of an organ; the renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney (cortical means pertaining to the cortex).
creatinine Nitrogenous waste excreted in urine. Creatinine clearance is a measure of the efficiency of the kidneys in removing (clearing) creatinine from the blood
electrolyte Chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water. necessary for functioning of muscles and nerves. The kidneys maintain the proper balance of this and water in the blood. Potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) are this.
erythropoietin (EPO) Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate the production of red blood cells by bone marrow.
filtration Process whereby some substances, but not all, pass through a filter. In the kidney, blood pressure forces materials through the filter (glomerulus).
glomerular capsule Enclosing structure surrounding each glomerulus. The glomerular capsule is also known as Bowman capsule and it collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus.
glomerulus (plural: glomeruli) Tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the kidney.
hilum Depression in an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
kidney One of two bean-shaped organs on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region; it filters nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream to form urine.
meatus Opening or canal.
medulla Inner region of an organ. The renal medulla is the inner region of the kidney
nephron Combination of glomerulus and renal tubule where filtration, reabsorption, and secretion take place in the kidney. It is the functional unit of the kidney, each capable of forming urine by itself. There are about 1 million in a kidney.
nitrogenous waste Substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine.
potassium (K+) An electrolyte regulated by the kidney so that a proper concentration is maintained within the blood. It is essential for allowing muscle contraction and conduction of nervous impulses.
reabsorption Process whereby renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream.
renal artery Blood vessel that carries blood to the kidney.
renal pelvis Central collecting region in the kidney.
renal tubule Microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration.
renal vein Blood vessel that carries blood away from the kidney and toward the heart.
renin Hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels).
sodium (Na+) An electrolyte regulated in the blood and urine by the kidneys; needed for proper transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and other metabolic functions.
trigone Triangular area in the urinary bladder.
urea Major nitrogenous waste excreted in urine.
ureter One of the two tubes leading from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
uric acid Nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine.
urinary bladder Hollow, muscular sac that holds and stores urine.
urination (voiding) Process of expelling urine; also called micturition.
cali/o, calic/o calyx (calix)
cyst/o urinary bladder
glomerul/o glomerulus
meat/o meatus
nephr/o kidney
pyel/o renal pelvis
ren/o kidney
trigon/o trigone (region of the bladder)
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
vesic/o urinary bladder
albumin/o albumin (a protein in the blood)
azot/o nitrogen
bacteri/o bacteria
dips/o thirst
kal/o potassium
ket/o, keton/o ketone bodies (ketoacids and acetone)
lith/o stone
natr/o sodium
noct/o night
olig/o scanty
-poietin substance that forms
py/o pus
-tripsy crushing
ur/o urine (urea)
urin/o urine
-uria urination; urine condition
glomerulonephritis Inflammation of the glomeruli within the kidney.
interstitial nephritis Inflammation of the connective tissue that lies between the renal tubules.
nephrolithiasis Kidney stones (renal calculi).
nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis) Group of clinical signs and symptoms caused by excessive protein loss in urine.
polycystic kidney disease (PKD) Multiple fluid-filled sacs (cysts) within and on the kidney.
pyelonephritis Inflammation of the lining of the renal pelvis and renal parenchyma.
renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma) Cancerous tumor of the kidney in adulthood.
renal failure Kidney decreases excretion of wastes as a result of impaired filtration function.
renal hypertension High blood pressure resulting from kidney disease.
Wilms tumor Malignant tumor of the kidney occurring in childhood.
bladder cancer Malignant tumor of the urinary bladder.
diabetes insipidus Antidiuretic hormone is not secreted adequately, or the kidney is resistant to its effect.
diabetes mellitus Insulin is not secreted adequately or not used properly in the body.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Measurement of urea levels in blood.
creatinine clearance Measurement of the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney.
CT scan X-ray images show multiple cross-sectional and other views of organs and tissues.
kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB) X-ray examination (without contrast) of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
renal angiography X-ray examination (with contrast) of the blood vessels of the kidney.
retrograde pyelogram (RP) X-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and ureters after injection of contrast through a urinary catheter into the ureters from the bladder.
voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) X-ray record (with contrast) of the urinary bladder and urethra obtained while the patient is voiding.
ultrasonography Imaging of urinary tract structures using high-frequency sound waves.
radioisotope scan Image of the kidney after injecting a radioactive substance (radioisotope) into the bloodstream.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Changing magnetic field produces images of the kidney and surrounding structures in three planes of the body.
cystoscopy Direct visualization of the urethra and urinary bladder with an endoscope
dialysis Process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the blood.
lithotripsy Urinary tract stones are crushed.
renal angioplasty Dilation of narrowed areas in renal arteries.
renal biopsy Removal of kidney tissue for microscopic examination.
renal transplantation Surgical transfer of a kidney from a donor to a recipient.
urinary catheterization Passage of a flexible, tubular instrument through the urethra into the urinary bladder.
ADH antidiuretic hormone—vasopressin
ARF acute renal failure
BILI bilirubin
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Cath catheter, catheterization
CCPD continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis
CKD chronic kidney disease—a condition during which serum creatinine and BUN levels rise, which may result in impairment of all body systems
Cl − chloride—an electrolyte excreted by the kidney
CRCL creatinine clearance; also seen as CrCl and CLcr
CRF chronic renal failure—progressive loss of kidney function
Na + sodium—an electrolyte
UTI urinary tract infection