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Chapter 21


a.c., ac before meals (ante cibum)
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ad lib freely, as desired (ad libitum)
APAP acetaminophen (Tylenol)
ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker
b.i.d., bid two times a day (bis in die)
c with
Caps capsules
cc cubic centimeter
FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration
gm, g gram
gtt drops (guttae)
h hour (hora)
h.s., hs at bedtime (hora somni)
H2 blocker histamine H2 receptor antagonist
HRT hormone replacement therapy
IM intramuscular
INH isoniazid—antituberculosis agent
IV intravenous
MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor—an antidepressant
mg milligram
ml, mL milliliter
NPO nothing by mouth (nil per os)
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
after (post)
p.c., pc after meals (post cibum)
PCA patient-controlled analgesia
PDR Physicians’ Desk Reference
PO, p.o., po by mouth (per os)
p.r.n., prn as needed; as necessary (pro re nata, as the occasion arises)
Pt patient
q every (quaque)
q.h., qh every hour (quaque hora)
q2h every 2 hours
q.i.d., qid four times a day (quater in die)
q.s., qs sufficient quantity (quantum satis)
qAM every morning
qPM every evening
Rx prescription
without (sine)
SERM selective estrogen receptor modulator
Sig. directions—how to take medication
SL sublingual
s.o.s. if it is necessary (si opus sit)
SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor—an antidepressant
SQ subcutaneous
tab tablet
TCA tricyclic antidepressant
t.i.d., tid three times daily (ter in die)
Fluoxetine (Prozac) 20 mg PO b.i.d. antidepressant taken by mouth twice a day
Lisinopril (Zestril) 20 mg 1 cap qAM. antihypertensive taken every morning
Ondansetron (Zofran) 4 mg 1 tab/cap t.i.d. p.r.n. for nausea antiemetic taken 3 times a day as needed
Ranitidine (Zantac) 300 mg 1 tab p.c. t.i.d. anti-GERD drug taken after meals 3 times a day
Olanzapine (Zyprexa) 5 mg 1 tab qPM antipsychotic, one tablet every evening
Acetaminophen (300 mg) & codeine (30 mg) 1 tab q.i.d. p.r.n. for pain Tylenol with a narcotic taken 4 times a day as needed
use of drugs in the treatment of disease chemotherapy
study of new drug synthesis medicinal chemistry
study of how drugs interact with their target molecules  molecular pharmacology
study of the harmful effects of drugs toxicology
study of drug effects in the body  pharmacodynamics
measurement of drug concentrations in tissues and in blood over a period of time pharmacokinetics
Specialist in the study of the harmful effects of drugs on the body is a/n toxicologist
Agent given to counteract harmful effects of a drug is a/an antidote
Government agency with legal responsibility for enforcing proper drug manufacture and clinical use is Food and Drug Administration
The ___________________________________ is the commercial name for a drug. trade (brand) name
The ___________________________________ is the complicated chemical formula for a drug. chemical name
The ___________________________________ is the legal noncommercial name for a drug. generic name
Professional who prepares and dispenses drugs is a/an ___________________________________ pharmacist
Specialist (MD or PhD) who studies the properties, uses, and actions of drugs is a/an pharmacologist
Reference book listing drug products is ___________________________________ Physicians’ Desk Reference
Authoritative listing of drugs, formulas, and preparations that sets a standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing is_____________ United States Pharmacopeia
administered via suppository or fluid into the anus rectal
administered via vapor or gas into the nose or mouth  inhalation
administered under the tongue sublingual
applied locally on skin or mucous membrane topical
injected via syringe under the skin or into a vein, muscle, or body cavity parenteral
given by mouth and absorbed through the stomach or intestinal wall oral
intravenous  within a vein
intrathecal within a sheath (membranes around the spinal cord or brain)
antiseptic an agent that works against infection
antipruritic an agent that works against itching
aerosol a solution of particles (drug) in air (vapor or gas)
intramuscular within a muscle
subcutaneous under the skin
intracavitary within a cavity
addiction physical and psychological dependence on a drug
dose  amount of drug administered
resistance lack of beneficial response
response  desired and beneficial effect of a drug
schedule exact timing and frequency of drug administration
dependence  prolonged use of a drug that may lead to physiologic need for its actions in the body
lotions, creams, ointments topical
tablets and capsules oral
skin testing for allergy intradermal
lumbar puncture intrathecal
deep injection, usually in buttock intramuscular
suppositories rectal
blood transfusions intravenous
aerosol medications inhalation
combination of two drugs is greater than the total effects of each drug by itself synergism (potentiation)
combination of two drugs that is equal to the sum of the effects of each additive action
effects of a given drug dose become less as treatment continues, and larger and larger doses must be given to achieve the desired effect tolerance
an unexpected effect that may appear in a patient following administration of a drug idiosyncrasy
two drugs give less than an additive effect (action) antagonistic
antibiotic an agent that inhibits or kills germ life (microorganisms)
antidepressant  an agent that relieves the symptoms of depression
antihistamine an agent that blocks the action of histamine and relieves allergic symptoms
analgesic an agent that relieves pain
anticoagulant an agent that prevents blood clotting
anesthetic  an agent that reduces or eliminates sensation
antidiabetic an agent used to prevent diabetes mellitus
sedative an agent (mildly hypnotic) that relaxes and calms nervousness
stimulant an agent that excites and promotes activity
tranquilizer a drug used to control anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior
caffeine or amphetamines stimulant
penicillin or erythromycin antibiotic
insulin antidiabetic
benzodiazepine sedative/ hypnotic
heparin anticoagulant
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug analgesic
phenothiazine tranquilizer
anaphylactic shock antihistamine
beta-blocker drug that blocks the action of epinephrine at sites of receptors of heart muscles, blood vessels, and bronchial tubes (antihypertensive, antianginal, and antiarrhythmic)
androgen a drug that produces male sexual characteristics
glucocorticoid a hormone from the adrenal glands that reduces inflammation and raises blood sugar
calcium channel blocker a drug that blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscle and blood vessel walls (antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive)
estrogen a hormone that produces female sexual characteristics
antacid a drug that neutralizes acid in the stomach
cathartic a drug that relieves constipation
antiemetic a drug that prevents nausea and vomiting
bronchodilator a drug that opens air passages
hypnotic  an agent that produces sleep
diuretic a drug that reduces the volume of blood and lowers blood pressure
cholesterol-lowering drug  a drug that reduces cholesterol levels (treats hypercholesterolemia)
what treats abnormal uterine bleeding caused by hormonal imbalance progestins
what treats severe behavior disturbances and anxiety tranquilizer
what treats epilepsy anticonvulsant
what treats congestive heart failure and hypertension ACE inhibitor
what treats epigastric discomfort antacid
what treats myalgia and neuralgia analgesic
what treats anaphylactic shock antihistamine
what treats thrombosis and embolism anticoagulant
what treats streptococcal pharyngitis antibiotic
what treats asthma bronchodilator
agent that reduces fever antipyretic
agent that reduces itching antipruritic
habit-forming analgesic narcotic
antibiotic derived from a red mold erythromycin
legal nonproprietary name of a drug generic
factor in a patient's condition that prevents the use of a particular drug contraindication
drug that produces an absence of sensation or feeling anesthetic
Cephalosporins (such as cefuroxime and cefprozil) and penicillins are examples of a/an ___________________________________ drug. antibiotic
Advil (ibuprofen) is an example of a/an ___________________________________ NSAID
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) and phenytoin (Dilantin) are examples of a/an ___________________________________ drug. anticonvulsant
Zovirax (acyclovir) and Crixivan (indinavir) are both types of a/an ___________________________________ drug. antiviral
Nolvadex (tamoxifen), used to treat estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer in women, is an example of a/an ___________________________________ drug. antiestrogen
Patients with high blood pressure may need Vasotec (enalapril) or Zestril (lisinopril). Both of these are examples of a/an ___________________________________. ACE inhibitor
Metformin (Glucophage) and rosiglitazone (Avandia) are two types of ___________________________________ drugs. oral antidiabetic for type 2 diabetes
Evista (raloxifene), used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, is an example of a selective estrogen receptor modulator or ___________________________________. SERM
Amitriptyline (Elavil) and fluoxetine (Prozac) are two types of a/an ___________________________________ drug. antidepressant
If you have an allergy, your doctor may prescribe Allegra (fexofenadine), which is a/an ___________________________________ drug antihistamine
Two agents that reduce the amount of fluid in the blood and thus lower blood pressure are Lasix (furosemide) and Aldactone (spironolactone). These are ___________________________________ drugs. diuretic
Xylocaine (lidocaine) and Pentothal (thiopental) are examples of a/an ___________________________________ drug. anesthetic
(TRANSLATE) 1 tab PO q.i.d. p.c. and h.s. take one tablet by mouth, four times a day, after meals and at bedtime
(TRANSLATE) 15-60 mg IM q4-6h administer 15-60 milligrams intramuscularly, every 4-6 hours
(TRANSLATE) 2 caps p.o. h.s. take two capsules by mouth at bedtime
(TRANSLATE) 1 tab SL p.r.n. place one tablet under the tongue, as needed
(TRANSLATE) Apply topically qhs prn apply to the skin, at bedtime as needed
After his heart attack, Bernie was supposed to take many drugs, including diuretics and a/an (progestin, laxative, anticoagulant) to prevent blood clots. (CHOOSE THE RIGHT ANSWER) anticoagulant
Estelle was always anxious and had a hard time sleeping. Dr. Max suggested that a mild (antacid, anticonvulsant, tranquilizer) would help her relax and concentrate on her work (CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER) tranquilizer
During chemotherapy Helen was very nauseated. Dr. Cohen prescribed an (antihypertensive, antiemetic, antianginal) to relieve her symptoms of queasy stomach. (CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER) antiemetic
The two antibiotics worked together and were therefore (idiosyncratic, generic, synergistic) in killing the bacteria in Susan's bloodstream. (CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER) synergistic
The label warned that the drug might impair fine motor skills. It listed the (side effects, antidote, pharmacodynamics) of the sedative. (CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER) side effects
After receiving the results of Judy's sputum culture, her physician, an expert in infectious disease, recommended Biaxin and other _____ to combat the Mycobacterium avium complex disease in her _____. antibiotics, lungs
Our dog, Eli, has had seizures since he was hit by a car last year. The veterinarian currently prescribes phenobarbital, an (anticoagulant, antinauseant, anticonvulsant), 45 mg b.i.d. (every other day, twice a day, every evening). anticonvulsant, twice a day
To control his type 1 (heart disease, asthma, diabetes), David gives himself daily injections of (oral drugs, insulin, aromatase inhibitors). diabetes, insulin
Many students who want to stay awake to study are taking (stimulants, sedatives, tranquilizers) containing (lithium, caffeine, butabarbital). stimulants, caffeine
Shelly's wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath when she is stressed and exposed to animal dander all pointed to a diagnosis of (pneumonia, asthma, heart disease), which required treatment with steroids and (antivirals, diuretics, bronchodilators). asthma, bronchodilators