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INC1 Module 4

Integrated Science

Structure of an atom electrons, neutrons and protons. Nucleus is Neutrons and Protons; Electrons float
What makes an atom radioactive an unstable nucleus - too many or not enough neutrons in the nucleus
What is an alpha particle two protons and two neutrons (helium atom); they are double positive. Lots of energy, can cause surface damage.
What is a beta particle an electron ejected from a nucleus; -1 charge; very fast, very small; can penetrate low mass material
What is gamma ray an electromagnetic wave emitted from an unstable nucleus; no mass, no electrical charge
Source of radiation elements with an atomic number greater than 82; they emit alpha, beta and gamma ray
Strong nuclear force allows like charged protons to remain close together; very strong over short distances
Electrical force repulsive force; like charges repel and opposite charges attract
How does size of the atom affect the strength of strong nuclear force and electrical force the bigger the atom the more "force"
What is E=mc2 Energy = mass x speed of light squared; its key to why/how energy is release in nuclear reactions
What happens to the mass per nucleon in uranium when it is split into smaller nuclei the nucleons lose mass during transition from being a uranium nucleus to being a fragment
Nuclear fussion and affect on mass a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy; combining of nuclei
General composition of stars Hydrogen (H), Helium (He) a small traces of heavier chemical elements
How stars differ in brightness and color luminosity, temp (blue = hottest, red = coolest); distance may also affect
Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram, what is it graph plotting luminosity and temp;
Main sequence star (H-R) Middle age, normal star undergoing nuclear fusion of H to He [our sun]
Red giant (H-R) Aging, large; relatively low surface temp; burning He in its core and its temp rises [will be or sun]
White dwarfs (H-R) Dead; used upon it He and its outer layers escape into space; dense contracting core
Stages of low mass stars Protostar, Stellar Nebulla, Main Sequence (Average Star), Red Giant, Planetary Nebula, White Dwarf
Stages of a high mass star Protostar, Stellar Nebulla, Massive Star, Red Supergiant, Supernova and either a Neutron Star or Black Hole
Gravitational collapse is the inward fall of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity which tends to draw the object toward its center of mass
Protostar a contracting cloud of gas and dust; early stage of a star
Hydrogen burning star main sequence star; H fuses to make He
Helium burning star fusion of He and C (carbon)
Nova/Supernova implosion of a star under its own gravitational forces occurs when internal temp drops significantly
Neutron star the remains of high-mass stars after a Supernova
Black holes A star in which matter is condenses and its gravity field is so strong that light can't escape
Super Giant (H-R) Elderly star
Org of Solar system Sun, Venus, Earth, Mars, Astroid Belt, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto Kuiper Belt, Oort Cloud
Smallest planet Mercury
Planet that spins backwards Venus
Largest planet Jupiter
Lowest density planet Saturn
Planet with a tilted axis Uranus
Planet made of rock and ice; on a different elliptical path Pluto
Structure of the sun from center core, radiation, convection, photosphere, corona, chromosphere
Terrestrial planets small, solid, rocky and dense
Jovian planets large, gaseous, have many rings; composed of mostly H and He
Big bang theory Idea that the physical universe began with primordial explosion; marks the beginning of space and time
Hubble's law and Big Bang Theory a relationship between distance of object from earth and rate which it is receding; that galaxies move apart faster the further away they are.
Cosmic background radiation and Big Bang Theory Faint radiation that is a result of the universe cooling itself
Doppler red shift and Big Bang Theory in light we get from galaxies proof the universe is still expanding; visible light is stretched out which means there is increase distance between us and other galaxies
Element abundance and Big Bang Theory Calc shows ratios of elements could only have been made in a universe that began in hot sea of radiation and elementary particles
Created by: kmac3936