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Chapter 18

Endocrine system

Adenectomy Removal of a gland.
Adenohypophysis Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Adrenal cortex Outer section of each adrenal gland.
Adrenalectomy Removal of an adrenal gland.
Adrenaline Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine.
Adrenal medulla Inner section of each adrenal gland.
Adrenocorticotropic Secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex ACTH.
Adrenocorticotropin Adrenocorticotropic hormone; ACTH.
Adrenopathy Disease of the adrenal glands.
Aldosterone Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance.
Androgen Male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics.
Antidiuretic hormone Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water re-absorption by the kidney.
Calcitonin Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers calcium levels in the blood.
Catecholamines Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example.
Corticosteroid Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples.
Cortisol Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar.
Electrolyte Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-).
Endocrinologist Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders.
Epinephrine Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Estradiol Estrogen secreted by the ovaries.
Estrogen Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females.
Estrogenic Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen.
Euthyroid Normal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Fasting blood sugar Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus.
Follicle-stimulating Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland;
hormone stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells.
Glucagon Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose.
Glucocorticoid Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar.
Glycemic Pertaining to blood sugar.
Glycogen Animal starch; glycogen is broken down (glycogenolysis) to produce sugar (glucose).
Glycosuria Sugar in urine.
Gonadotropin Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and acting on the ovaries or testes.
Growth hormone Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; somatotropin. It stimulates the growth of bones and soft tissues.
Homeostasis Tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability.
Hormonal Pertaining to a hormone.
Hormone Chemical secreted by an endocrine gland.
Hypercalcemia High levels of calcium in the bloodstream; often due to hyperparathyroidism.
Hypercalciuria High levels of calcium in urine.
Hyperglycemia High levels of sugar in the blood.
Hyperthyroidism Increased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
Hypocalcemia Low levels of calcium in the blood.
Hypoglycemia Low levels of sugar in the blood
Hypogonadism Deficient functioning of the gonads (ovaries or testes).
Hypoinsulinism Deficient production of insulin (pancreatic hormone).
Hypokalemia Low levels of potassium in the blood.
Hyponatremia Low levels of sodium in the blood.
Hypophysectomy Removal of the pituitary gland.
Hypophysis Pituitary gland.
Hypopituitarism Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Hypothalamus Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones.
Insulin Hormone secreted by the beta islet cells of the pancreas. Insulin helps sugar leave the blood and enter cells.
Luteinizing hormone Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the ovaries to release eggs (ovulation) and produce hormones.
Mineralocorticoid Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salts (electrolytes) and water balance in the body. Aldosterone is an example.
Neurohypophysis Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.
Norepinephrine Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases blood pressure as part of the fight or flight reaction. It is a sympathomimetic.
Oxytocin Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth.
Pancreas Endocrine (islet cells) and exocrine (enzyme producing cells) gland behind the stomach.
Pancreatectomy Excision of the pancreas.
Parathormone Secreted by the parathyroid glands; regulates calcium in the blood.
Parathyroidectomy Removal of parathyroid glands.
Parathyroid glands Four small endocrine glands on the posterior side of the thyroid gland.
Pineal gland Small endocrine gland in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin.
Pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain; anterior and posterior lobes secrete hormones.
Polydipsia Excessive thirst.
Progesterone Hormone secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy.
Prolactin Secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion.
Receptor Cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone to elicit a response by the targeted tissue.
Sella turcica Cavity in the base of the skull; contains the pituitary gland.
Somatotropin Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone.
Steroid Complex substance related to fat (sterols; many hormones are steroids (estrogens, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone).
Sympathomimetic Pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system; adrenaline and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones.
Target tissue Cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones.
Testosterone Hormone secreted by the testes
Tetraiodothyronine Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism; thyroxine (T4).
Thyroid gland Endocrine gland in the neck on either side of the trachea.
Thyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Thyrotropin Hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormones. Also called thyroid-stimulating hormone or TSH.
Thyroxine Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland to increase body metabolism (T4).
Triiodothyronine Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland (contains three atoms of iodine); stimulates body metabolism; T3.
Vasopressin Hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water. Also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH.
Acromegaly Enlargement of extremities due to increased secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Addison disease Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex; decreased secretion of aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal virilism Excessive secretion of adrenal androgens.
Cretinism Hypothyroidism during infancy and childhood leading to a lack of normal physical and mental growth.
Cushing syndrome Group of symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex; obesity, hyperglycemia, excess fat deposition in the body. High levels of exogenous cortisol (cortisone administration) can produce similar results.
Diabetes insipidus Insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); signs are polyuria and polydipsia.
Diabetes mellitus Lack of insulin secretion (Type 1) or improper utilization of insulin by cells (Type 2) leading to a chronic disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in cells.
Dwarfism Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland.
Endemic goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to lack of iodine in the diet.
Exophthalmometry Exophthalmometry Measurement of eyeball protrusion.
Exophthalmos Protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis); symptom of hyperthyroidism.
Gastroparesis Loss of motility of the stomach muscles, occurring as a long-term secondary complication of diabetes mellitus.
Gigantism Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues.
Glucose tolerance test Measures the glucose levels in a blood sample taken at various intervals from a patient who has previously ingested glucose.
Goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Graves disease Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis. This is the most common type o fhyperthyroidism.
Hirsutism Excessive hair growth.
Hyperinsulinism Increased secretion of insulin from the beta islet cells of the pancreas.
Hyperparathyroidism Increased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Hypoparathyroidism Decreased secretion of parathormone from the parathyroid glands.
Hypothyroidism Decreased secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland.
Ketoacidosis High levels of acids (ketones) in the blood; occurring in diabetes mellitus (type 2) when cells burn high levels of fats (producing ketones) because sugar is not available as fuel.
Myxedema Hypofunctioning of the thyroid gland in adults.
Nodular goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland due to growth of nodules (adenomas) on the thyroid gland.
Panhypopituitarism Deficiency of all pituitary gland hormones
Pheochromocytoma Tumor of cells of the adrenal medulla; cells stain a dark (phe/o) or dusky color (chrom/o).
Radioactive iodine uptake Test to measure the amount of radioactive iodine taken up by the thyroid gland; indicator of thyroid gland function.
Syndrome of inappropriate ADH Excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) leading to water retention.
Tetany Constant muscle contractions; associated with hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism.
Thyroid carcinoma Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid function tests Measurement of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the bloodstream.
Thyroid scan Administration of a radioactive compound and visualization of the thyroid gland with a scanning device.
Thyrotoxicosis Hyperthyroidism (overactivity of the thyroid gland).
aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
gonad/o sex glands
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland
pituitar/o pituitary gland, hypophysis
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
andr/o male
calc/o, calci/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o thirst
estr/o female
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
home/o sameness
hormon/o hormone
kal/i potassuum (an electrolyte)
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium
phys/o growing
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
toc/o childbirth
-agon assemble, gather together
-emia blood condition
-in, -ine a substance
-tropin stimulation the function of
-uria urine condition
eu- good, normal
hyper- excessive, above
hypo- deficient, below, under, less than normal
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
tetra- four
tri- three
type 1 diabetes the type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin; often diagnosed in childhood, although some cases arise in adulthood
type 2 diabetes disease that occurs when the inculin produced by the pancreas does not appear to function.
computed tomography scan cross sectional x-ray images of the pituitary gland and other endocrine organs
magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic and radio waves create an image of an organ three planes of the body. The brain and spinal cord can be imaged to detect lesions.
radioactive iodine uptake scan RAI; test thyroid function by measuring glands ability to concentrate and retain iodine
thyroid scan test in which a radioactive iodine is administrated that localizes in the thyroid gland. the gland can then be visualized with a scanning device to detect pathology such as tumors
ultrasound examination sound waves show images of endocrine organs
AIC blood test that measures glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to assess glucose control
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic hormone; a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex,
ADH antidiuretic hormone; hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; antidiuretic hormone, antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin
BGM blood glucose monitoring
BMR basal metabolic rate - an indicator of thyroid function, but not in current use
Ca++ calcium, an important electrolyte
CGMS continuous glucose monitoring system - senses and records blood glucose levels
DI diabetes insipidus
DKA diabetes ketoacidosis
DM diabetes mellitus
FBG fasting blood glucose
FBS fasting blood sugar
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
GH growth hormone
GTT glucose tolerance test- measures the ability to respond to a glucose load; test for diabetes mellitus
HbA1c (test) or HBAIC test for the presence of glucose attached to hemoglobin (glycosylated hemoglobin test); a high level indicates poor glucose control in diabetic patients
hCG or HCG human chorionic gonadotropin
ICSH interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
IIDDM insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus; type 1 diabetes
IGF insulin-like growth factor - also called somatomedin (produced in liver, stimulates bone growth)
K+ Potassium- an important electrolyte
LH Luteinizing hormone; ovulation and egg release, maturation of egg, release of testosterone in males.
MDI multiple daily injection - also known as basal/bolus. It is a diabetes management regimen
Na+ Sodium- an important electrolyte
OT oxytocin
PRL prolactin
PTH parathyroid hormone (parathormone)
RAI radioactive iodine - treatment for Graves disease
RAIU Radioactive iodine up-take test
SIADH syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (secretion)
STH Somatotrophin- growth hormone
T3 triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone)
T4 Thyroxine-Tetraiodothyronine
TFT thyroid function test
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone; secreted by the anterior pituitary gland