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Anatomy and Phy

Ch. 7 Anatomy and Physiology

abductor muscles muscles that separate the fingers
adductor muscles muscles at the base of each finger that draw the fingers together
anabolism constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones
anatomy the science of the structure of organisms and of their parts
angular artery artery that supplies blood to the sides of the nose
anterior auricular artery artery that supplies blood to the front part of the ear
aorta largest artery of the body
aponeurosis tendon that connects the occipitalis and the frontalis
arteries muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the capillaries throughout the body
atrium one of the two upper chambers of the heart through which blood is pumped to the ventricles
auricularis anterior muscle in front of the ear that draws it forward
auricularis posterior muscle behind the ear that draws it backwards
auricularis superior muscle above the ear that draws it upward
auriculotemporal nerve nerve that affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull
autonomic nervous system (ANS) the part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of smooth muscles, glands, blood vessels, and heart
belly of a muscle middle part of a musle
blood nutritive fluid circulating through the circulatory system that supplies oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissues and removes carbon dioxide and waste
blood vascular system group of structures that distribute blood throughout the body.
brain largest and most complex nerve tissue; part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
buccal nerve nerve that affects the muscles of the mouth
buccinator thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaws
capillaries thin-walled vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins
carpus the bones of the wrists
catabolism the phase of metabolism that breaks down complex compounds within cells; releases energy to perform functions
cell membrane part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm; permits soluble substances to enter and leave a cell
cells basic units of all living things
central nervous system cerebrospinal nervous system consisting of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves
cervical cutaneous nerve nerve located at the side of the neck; affects the front and sides of the neck to breastbone
cervical nerve nerve that originates at the spinal cord affecting the scalp and back of the head and neck
cervical vertebrae seven bones that form the top part of the spinal column in the neck region
circulatory system system that controls the steady circulation of blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels
common carotid arteries arteries that supply blood to the head, face, and neck
corrugator facial muscle that draws eyebrows down and wrinkles the forehead vertically
cranium oval, bony case that protects the brain
cytoplasm all of the protoplasm of a cell except that in the nucleus
depressor labii inferiorus muscle surrounding the lower lip
diaphragm muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing
digestive system the mouth stomach, intestines and salivary and gastric glands that change food into nutrients and wastes
eleventh cranial nerve spinal nerve branch that affects the muscles of the neck and back
endocrine system group of specialized glands that affect growth, development,sexual function, and general health
epicranius broad muscle that covers the top of the skull
ethmoid bone a light, spongy bone between the eye sockets forming part of the nasal cavities
excretory system group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, large intestine, and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter
external carotid artery artery that supplies blood to the anterior parts of the scalp, face, mouth and nose
external jugular vein vein located at the side of the neck that carries blood returning to the heart from the head, face and neck
facial artery artery that supplies the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose
fifth cranial nerve chief sensory nerve of the face; controls chewing
frontal artery artery that supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids
frontal bone bone that forms the forehead
frontalis anterior or front portion of the epicranius; muscle of the scalp
glands specialized organs varying in size and function that have the ability to remove certain elements from the blood and to convert them into new compunds
greater auricular nerve nerve at the sides of the neck affecting the face, ears, and neck
greater occipital nerve nerve located at the back of the head, affecting the scalp
gross anatomy the study of large and easily observable structures on an organism as seen through inspection with the naked eye
heart muscular, cone-shaped organ that keeps blood moving through the circulatory system
histology the study of the minute structure structure of the various tissues and organs that make up the entire body of an organism
humerus uppermost and largest bone in the arm
hyoid bone U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue at the front part of the throat
indirect division the method by which a mature cell reproduces in the body
inferior labial artery artery that supplies the lower lip
infraobital artery artery hat supplies blood to the eye muscles
infratrochlear nerve nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose
insertion of a muscle the more moveable attachment of a muscle
integumentary system the skin and its appendages
internal carotid artery artery that supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose and ear
internal jugular vein vein located at the side of the neck; collects blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck
lacrimal bones small bones located in the wall of the eye sockets. (2)
levator anguli oris muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward
levator labii superioris muscle surrounds the upper lip
lungs organs of respiration
lymph colorless watery fluid that circulates in the lymphatic system; carries waste and impurities from cells
lymphatic (immune) system consists of lymph, lymph nodes, the thymus gland, the spleen, and lymph vessels that act as an aid to the blood system
lymph nodes gland-like structures found inside lymphatic vessels that filter lymph
mandible bone largest bone in the face; lower jawbone
mandibular nerve branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the muscles and skin of the lower part of the face
masseter one of the jaw muscles used in chewing
maxillary bones bones of the upper jaw
mental nerve nerve that affects the skin of the lower lip and chin
mentalis muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises andwrinkles the skin and chin
metabolism a complex chemical process whereby cells are nourished and supplied with the energy needed to carry out their activities
metacarpus contains the metacarpal bones in the palm of the hand
middle temporal artery artery that supplies blood to the temples
mitosis cells dividing into new cells (daughter cells)
mixed nerves nerves that contain both sensory and motor nerve fibers; can send and receive messages
motor nerves nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles
muscular system body system that covers, shapes and supports the skeletaltissue
myology the study of the structure, functions, and diseases of the muscles
nasal bones bones that form the bridge of the nose (2)
nasal nerve nerve that affect the point and lower sides of the nose
Created by: BSPittsburgh