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Science Finals study guide packet 1- 6th grade- 2015

Earth's Tilt 23 1/2 degrees- gives us the four seasons of the temperature zones- gives us the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
Aphelion When the earth is furthest from the sun
Perihelion When the earth is closest to the sun
Elliptical Orbit When the orbit is shaped like an ellipse- A-symmetrical elliptical orbit
Earth's Revolution When the earth goes around the sun- it takes 365.24 days- gives us the year
Earth's Rotation The spinning of the earth on its axis- the rotation of the earth around the sun- it takes 24 hours- gives us night and day
Speed of Earth's Rotation Approximately 1,000 MPH
Satellite The moon is earth's natural satellite
The order of the inner and outer planets of the solar system Mercury- Venus- Earth- Mars- Jupiter- Saturn- Uranus- Neptune
Light Year The distance that light travels in one year
Proxima Centauri The closest star to earth other than the sun
Milky Way The Galaxy that the solar system is in (including earth)
Andromeda The closest galaxy to earth ( besides the Milky Way)
Pangaea The super continent that existed 150,000,000 years ago
Dates of Ice Ages Harbor Hill Advance; 17,000 BP- Ronkonkoma Advance; 60,000 BP
BP Before Present
Age of the earth About 4.6 billion years old
How do you find protons, neutrons, and electrons using a periodic table? Protons= same as the atomic number(in a balanced atom) Neutrons= The atomic mass minus the atomic number Electrons= same as the atomic number(in a balanced atom)
What is the mass and charge of the following particles: protons, electrons, neutrons? Protons= mass:1, charge: positive Electrons= mass:approximately 0, charge: negative Neutrons= mass:1, charge: zero( neutral)
Atomic Nucleus The nucleus of an atom- center of an atom- holds the most mass
Energy Levels The shell of an atom- with electrons
Exothermic A reaction or change that releases energy
Homogeneous Mixture A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture- appears the same throughout- milk
Heterogeneous Mixture A mixture in which substances are unevenly distributed throughout the mixture- does not appear the same throughout- oatmeal
Mixtures Two or more substances that are mixed together but not chemically bonded together
Compound A pure substance made of two or more elements that ARE chemically bonded together
Physical Properties A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without. hanging it into another substance chemically
Chemical Properties A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into a different substance
Potential Energy Energy that is stored
Kinetic Energy The energy of movement
Grams The SI Measurement for mass
Meters The SI unit that measures the distance between two points
Liters The SI unit for volume
SI Units The International Standard of Metric measurements
Density The amount of mass compared to its volume
Volume The amount of space a object occupies
Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means- the building blocks of matter( there are 118 of these)
Substance Anything that contains only one pure type or material
Molecule A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together
Evaporation The process that occurs when vaporization takes place only on the surface of a liquid
Condensation The change of state from a gas to a liquid
Precipitation Water that falls to earth as rain, snow, hail or sleet
Freezing At 0 degrees Celsius, liquid water changes into solid ice
Polarity The hydrogen sides or water are positive and the oxygen side is negative
Polar bonds in Water molecules The positive charges of the hydrogen atoms of water molecules make the bond between hydrogen and oxygen a polar bond
Formula of Water H2O = 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen
Ground water Water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
Aquifers An underground layer of permeable rock or sediment that holds water
Moraine A large hill formed by glaciers
Out wash Plains Landforms that hold large areas of ground water- The large sandy formations found downhill from moraines
Runoff Water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
Infiltration When water enters the earth through the soil
Percolation The process of water flowing between soil particles
Streambed The bottom of a stream or river
Friction The force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another
Abrasion The wearing away of rock due to grinding action
Turbulence Water that flows in every direction
Slope The angle of incline that the water flows down due to gravity
Meanders The snake like bends (curves) formed in a river from banks being eroded
Erosion The process of removing weathered rock and sediment
Deposition The process that lays down sediment
Mass Movement Landslides, Mudflows, and Creep, are all processes of mass movement
Gravity A force that moves rocks and other materials downhill
Sediment The material made of small pieces or rock and the remains of living things
Valley Glacier A glacier found between mountains at high elevations
Continental Glacier A glacier that covers much of a continent or large island
Creep The very slow movement or sediment downhill
Hemisphere One half of the sphere that makes up earth's surface
Prime Meridian An imaginary line that divides the earth into eastern and western hemispheres
Equator An imaginary line that divides the earth into northern and southern hemispheres
Degrees Measures distance around the earth
Map A flat model of all or part of earth's surface
Scale Used to compare distance on a map or globe to distance on earth's surface
Symbols On a map, pictures used by mapmaker so to stand for features on earth's surface
Landforms A feature of topography formed by the processes that shape earth's surface
Topography The shape of the land
Key Describes symbols on a map
Elevation Height above sea level
Contour Interval The difference in elevation from one contour line to the next
Longitude lines Imaginary lines that travel north and south describing position relative to the equator
Latitude lines Imaginary lines that travel east and west describing position relative to the equator
Contour lines Imaginary lines that show elevation
Index Contour A contour line that is darker in color and is labeled with the elevation
Plateau An elevated plain
Mountain A large, rocky, highly elevated landform
Plain A large, low, flat landform
Created by: Koutsantanou