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Musculoskeletal Review

What are the five regions of the vertebral column? Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral. Coccyx
What are the four different types of bones? Short, Irregular, Flat, Long
What are the functions of bones? Provide framework for body, Protect internal organs, Store calcium/other minerals, Produce blood cells, Provide points of attachments
What are the functions of muscle? Contribute to posture, Produce heat, Protect internal organs, Primarily movement
What are the three different types of muscle? Skeletal/voluntary/striated, Smooth/involuntary/visceral, Cardiac
What are the three different types of ribs? True, False, Floating
What are the three divisions of the pelvis? Ilium, Ischium, Pubis
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of? Bones of the upper/lower limbs, Shoulder/pectoral girdle, Pelvic/hip girdle
What are the three regions of the axial skeleton? Skull, Rib cage, Vertebral column
What does the pectoral girdle consist of? Clavicle, Scapula
What is a fontanel? Unossified membrane lying between the cranial bones
What is an orthopedics? Physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
What is muscular dystrophy? Genetic disorder, Gradual atrophy and weakening of muscle tissue
What is myasthenia gravis? Neuromuscular disorder, Muscle weakness leads to loss of function
What is rheumatoid arthritis? Systemic disease, Results in crippling deformities
periosteum A dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bone.
tendon A strap composed of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone.
lordosis Abnormal inward curvature of the spine.
scoliosis Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
kyphosis An exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic vertebrae.
appendage Any body part attached to a main structure.
talipes Any deformity of the foot; also called club foot.
ligament Band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone.
osteoporosis Bone pores or cavities resulting from a decrease in bone density.
sternum Breast bone
flexion Decreases the angle of a joint.
crepitation Dry grating sound caused by bones rubbing together.
dorsiflexion Elevates the foot
laminectomy Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra.
podiatry Foot treatment
diarthrosis Freely movable joints
synarthrosis Immovable joints
exacerbation Increase in severity of a disease.
extension Increases the angle of a joint.
claudication Lameness, limping
cruciate ligament Ligaments that form an X
hypotonia Loss of muscular tone
plantar flexion Lowers the foot
bone mineral density Measures bone density
abduction Moves away from the midline
adduction Moves closer to the midline
inversion Moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion Moves the sole of the foot outward
strain Muscular trauma caused by violent contraction or an excessive forcible stretch.
subluxation Partial or incomplete dislocation
reduction Procedure that restores bone to its normal position.
hematopoiesis Production and development of blood cells.
arthrocentesis Puncture of a joint space
myelography Radiography of the spinal cord
open reduction Reduction procedures that treats bone fractures using surgery.
closed reduction Reduction procedure that uses manipulation.
muscular tissue Refers to all contractile tissue of the body.
amphiarthrosis Slightly movable joints
torticollis Stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the neck muscle.
ankylosis Stiffening and immobility of a joint.
sprain Tearing of ligament tissue
ilium The lateral flaring portion of the hip bone.
agonist The muscle that produces the movement
antagonist The muscle that relaxes in order to allow a movement.
joint/articulation The place at which two bones meet.
pubis The third portion of the hip bone.
calcium supplements Treat and prevents hypocalcemia.
pronation Turns the palm down
supination Turns the palm up
ACL anterior cruciate ligament
CDH congenital dislocation of the hip
CT computed tomography
DJD degenerative joint disease
EMG electromyography
Fx fracture
IM intramuscular
IV intravenous
MS musculoskeletal; Multiple Sclerosis
NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
THA total hip arthroplasty
THR total hip replacement
Created by: JessP