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Pathology Q3

Study for final

excess blood in any part hyperemia/congestion
purposefully put in a body part by the arterial system active hyperemia
results from normal everyday body function, as in exercise or digestion physiological active hyperemia
results from an injury or disease process, as in an area of inflammation due to infarction (abnormal) pathological active hyperemia
occurs when venous drainage from an area is decreased passive hyperemia
passive hyperemia is always ____ pathological
causes of passive hyperemia - blood clot - vascular swelling (thickening of vessel walls) - pressure from a lesion
generalized hyperemia is usually a result of a ___ ___ heart disorder
blood settling to the dependent parts of the body due to faulty circulation and caused by reduced pressure from the heart hypostatic congestion
a bluish color seen in the tissues caused by diminished blood flow cyanosis
solid mass or blood clot in the heart or vascular system thrombus
reasons for thrombosis 1. injury to heart or blood vessels 2. diseases of the blood 3. slow blood
Where can thrombosis occur? anywhere in the vascular or venous system
thrombus that partially occludes the lumen parietal thrombus
thrombus that completely occludes the lumen obstructive thrombus
thrombus that leads to ischemia or decrease of blood flow arterial thrombus
thrombus that leads to passive hyperemia or gangrene venous thrombus
condition when a clot or fragment of a clot floats through the blood system, causing an obstruction of the vessel embolism
a clot or fragment of a clot that floats through the blood system embolus
an embolus can also be... 1. clumps of bacteria, parasites or tumors 2. fat globules 3. foreign particles 4. air or gas bubbles
inflammation of a vein due to some disease irritation phelbitis
decreased blood flow to a part of the body ischemia
causes of ischemia 1. atherosclerosis 2. embolism
the thickening of vascular walls usually due to disease atherosclerosis
an area to be supplied with blood dies without that supply infarction
aka infarction ischemic necrosis
aka ischemic necrosis infarction
usually refers to a very brief brain attack that leaves no permanent damage or cellular damage (mini-stroke) transient ischemia attack (TIA)
chest pain due to the infarction at the heart angina
bed sores caused by a lack of blood flow to the skin decubitus ulcers
ischemic necrosis in an extremity gangrene
___ gangrene is not really gangrene at all, but ischemic necrosis dry
dry gangrene is not really gangrene at all, but ___ ___ ischemic necrosis
example of dry gangrene frostbite
necrotic tissue which has been invaded by saprophytic bacteria moist/true gangrene
cause of moist/true gangrene disturbance of venous return & saprophytic bacteria
embalmer's nightmare gas gangrene
TB mycobacterium whoch forms a white frothy substance, cottage cheese-like purging from the mouth caseous gangrene
escape of blood from the vascular system hemorrhage
hemorrhage in which blood bursts from the vessel rupture/rhexis
hemorrhage in which blood drips from a small opening in the vessel hemorrhage per dispedesis
tiny pin-point hemorrhages petechiae
large, irregular, circumscribed & localized bruise ecchymosis
non-circumscribed widespread areas of purple bruising into the skin or mucous membranes (intact vessels) purpura
tumor-like swelling with blood hematoma
blood blister hematoma
dark tarry feces or vomit due to release of blood into the GI tract melena
bleeding in the thorax or pleural cavity hemothorax
bleeding in the pericardial cavity hemopericardium
bleeding in the abdominal cavity hemoperitoneum
blood in the vomit hematemesis
blood in the spit hemoptysis
bleeding from the schnozola epitaxis
the normal process of blood forming into a semi-solid state coagulation
hypo perfusion or reduced oxygen flow to the tissues circulatory shock
signs of circulatory shock 1. depressed vessels 2. state of collapse 3. low blood pressure 4. cold & clammy skin
fainting or mild form of shock syncope
shock due to lack of blood volume hypovolemic
shock from a heart attack cardiogenic
shock from blood infection septic
shock from emotional trauma neurogenic
an excess of body fluid in the tissues of the body edema
an extravascular condition where the excess fluid is not returning to the lymph system or the capillaries edema
causes of edema 1. heart failure 2. obstruction 3. increased capillary permeability 4. decreased osmotic pressure
widespread edema anasarca
edema around a site of inflammation exudate
edema of the pleural cavity hydrothorax
edema of the pericardium hydropericardium
edema of the peritoneal cavity ascites
dessication dehydration
total decrease in body fluids dehydration
causes of dehydration 1. high temps (febrile disease) 2. high environmental temps 3. Gi diseases 4. glandular diseases
embalming implication associated with circulatory disorders 1. diminished circulation 2. dehydration/emaciation 3. hemorrhage 4. rapid decomp 5. abscesses
blood cells without a nucleus agranulocytes
blood cells with a nucleus granuocytes
turns into fibrin or sticky strands of networks to form a clot fibrinogen
erythrocytes containing hemoglobin erythroblasts
a condition which brings about reduction below normal in the red blood cells or normal hemoglobin anemia
literally means "no blood" anemia
symptoms of anemia lack of oxygen causing tiredness and dizziness
lifespan of red blood cells 120 days
cause of aplastic anemia idiopathic (unknown)
anemia characterized by a lack of vitamin B-12 pernicious anemia
digestive problem associated with pernicious anemia achlorhydria
anemia characterized by quick loss of blood, either externally or internally hemorrhagic anemia
anemia characterized by some particular pathological event that accelerates the destruction of red blood cells hemolytic anemia
Created by: leahmurphy