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Science final

centripetal acceleration acceleration of an object towards the center of a curved path
centripetal force a force directed toward the center of a circle for an object moving in a circular motion
friction a force that opposes motion between two touching surfaces
law of gravitation states that any two masses exert a force one each other, which depends on the mass of the two objects and the distance between them
momentum a property that a moving object has because of its mass and velocity
Newton's second law of motion states that a net force acting on an object causes the object to accelerate in the direction of the net force
Newton's third law describes action-reaction pairs; to every force there is an equal and opposite reaction force
weight gravitational force exerted on an object by earth
chemical potential energy energy stored in chemical bonds
elastic potential energy energy stored by things that stretch, twist, or compress
gravitational potential energy energy stored by things attracted to each other by the force of gravity
joule SI unit of energy
kinetic energy energy in the form of motion; depends on the mass and velocity of the object
law of conservation of energy states that energy can never be created or destroyed
mechanical energy sum of potential and kinetic energy in a system
potential energy stored energy due to position; can be converted to kinetic energy when something acts to release it
compound machine combines two or more simple machines
efficiency measure of how much of the work put into a machine is changed into work done by a machine
effort force force exerted on a machine that is used to do work
inclined plane simple machine that consist of a sloping surface, such as a ramp, that reduces the amount of force needed to lift something by increasing the distance over which the force is applied
lever a simple machine made from a bar that is free to pivot around a fixed point
machine a device that makes doing work easier by increasing the force applied to n object, by changing the direction of an applied force, or by increasing the distance over which the force can be applied
mechanical advantage number of times a machine multiplies the effort force applied to it
power amount of work done, or the amount of energy transferred, in a certain amount of time
pulley a simple machine that consists of a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable that runs along a groove, changes the direction of the effort force, and can be fixed of moveable
resistance force force applied by a machine to overcome resistance
screw a simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a cylindrical post
simple machine machine that does work with only one movement; includes the lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, and wedge
wedge a simple machine that consists of an inclined plane with one or two slopping sides
wheel and axle a simple machine that consists of two different-sized wheels that rotate together
work transfer of energy the occurs when a force makes an object move; measured in joules
wave a rhythmic disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space; exists only as long as it has energy to carry
medium any material or combustion that a wave can transfer energy through
transverse wave a type of wave, such as a water wave, where the matter in the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels
compressional wave a type of wave where the matter moves back and forth in the same direction the wave travels; has compressions and rarefractions
crest highest point of a transverse wave
trough lowest point of a transverse wave
refraction the least dense region of a compressional wave
wavelength distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it on the following wave; as frequency wavelength always decreases
frequency measures how many wavelengths pass a fixed point each second, and is expressed in hertz
aplitude a measure of energy is carried by a wave
conduction transfer of energy through matter by colliding particles;takes place because particles are in constant motion
convection transfer of energy by the motion of heated particles in a fluid
radiation transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves
insulators materials such as fleece or fiberglass that do not allow heat to move easily through them
nuclear fusion process of fusing together two atomic nuclei with low masses to form one nucleus with a larger mass
nuclear fission process of splitting a large atomic nucleus into two nuclei with smaller masses
chain reaction an ongoing series of fission reactions
tracer a radioisotope that is used to find or keep track of molecules in an organism
critical mass amount of fissionable material required so that each fission reaction produces approx. one more fission reaction
opaque a material that absorbs or reflects all light
translucent a material that allows some light to pass through, but not enough to see objects clearly
transparent a material that transmits almost all the light striking it so that objects can be seen clearly through it
index of refraction property of a material indicating how much light slows down when traveling in a material
mirage an image of a distant object that results when air at ground level is much warmer or cooler than the air layers above it, which makes the image refract and appear at a different loction from where it usually is
pigment colored material that absorbs some colors, and reflects
Charging by contact process of transferring charge by touching or rubbing two surfaces
charging by induction process of transferring charge between objects by bringing a charged object by a neutral object
circuit a CLOSED conducting loop through which an electric current can run through
conductor material such as copper wire, through which an excess of electrons can easily move though
electrical current flow of electric charge through a wire or an conductor; mesured in amperes
electrical power the rate at which electrical energy is converted into another form of energy; expressed in watts
insulator material that doesn't allow electrons to move easily through
kilowatt-hour a unit of electrical energy which is, 100 watts of power used in one hour
law of conservation of charge states that charge can be transferred from one object to another, but can't be created or destroyed
ohm's law states that the current in a circuit equals the voltage difference divided by the resistance
parallel circuit a circuit in which electric current has more than one path to follow
resistance tendency for a material to oppose electron flow, and change electrical energy into light
series circuit a circuit in which current only has one path to flow
static electricity electricity generated when two objects rub against each other
voltage difference a push that causes electrical charges to flow through a conductor; measured in volts
Created by: ChloeMJ