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Unit 9 Vocabulary

CNS (Central Nervous System) Spinal cord and brain - consists of tracts are bundles of axons forming a pathway.
PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) Everything else - Consists of nerves that are bundles of axons of sensory or motor neurons existing outside of the CNS.
SNS (Somatic Nervous System) Voluntary muscle control of skeletal muscles. This system controls the motor neurons and is under voluntary control.
Sensory/Afferent Neurons that send information from the sensory organs, through the nerves, into the CNS.
Motor/Efferent Neurons that carry messages from CNS, through nerves, to operate muscles and glands.
Interneurons Exist only within the CNS. They carry messages from 1 set of neurons to the other. They can bring information from different sources together into one location in the CNS.
Sympathetic The arousal for defensive action. Prepares body for fight or flight.
Parasympathetic When the stressor is over, this takes over. Calming, conserves energy and decreases heart rate.
Neuroglia The connective tissue of the nervous system, consisting of several different types of cell associated with neurons. Found in the brain and important to the immune system.
Neuron A specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell.
Axon A single tube-like fiber that is thicker and longer than dendrites. It is used by the neuron to transmit an electrical impulse to other neurons.
Dendrites Receives incoming signals from other neurons.
Myelin Sheath A fatty white substance which grows around the axon. It speeds the neural impulse by insulating the axon.
Synapse The area between the axon terminal and the dendrites. Neurons do not actually touch each other.
Endorphins A group of hormones secreted within the brain and nervous system and having a number of physiological functions.
Multiple Sclerosis A disease in which the immune system eats away at the protective covering of nerves.
Neurotransmitters A chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber by the arrival of a nerve impulse and, by diffusing across the synapse or junction, causes the transfer of the impulse to another nerve fiber, a muscle fiber, or some other structure.
Grey Matter The Cerebral Cortex. It is the newest portion of the brain. It is divided into 4 regions: Occipital, Temporal, Parietal, Frontal.
Created by: BrittD2015