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Respiratory Phys 2

WVSOM -- Mechanics of Breathing

QuestionAnswer
Name the 3 different processes involved in respiration. ventilation, perfusion, diffusion
How is the lung adapted for efficient gas exchange? Gets larger for a large amount of surface area especially the alveoli and also has a very thin membrane
What does ventilation involve? lung inflation and deflation
What does inspiration require? muscle contraction that increases the volume of the chest cavity
What are the 3 muscle groups that participate in inspiration? diaphragm, external intercostals and accessory muscles
What accessory muscles are used in inspirations? scalens and sternomastoids
What is required during quiet breathing? relaxation of inspiratory muscles
What is used in expiration that is not quiet breathing? lung and chest wall elasticity, abdominal muscles and internal intercostals
Why do the lungs expand with the chest wall? there is cohesion between the peura due to intrapleural fluid.
Why is there a tug of war in the chest wall? the intrapleural fluid causes cohesion but the negative intrapleural pressure pulls against it
What happens in a pneumothorax? the lungs collapse inward and the chest wall moves outward.
What controls air movement? lung pressure
How is transpulmonary pressure calculated? Alveolar pressure – Pleural pressure
How is transairway pressure calculated? Airway pressure – Pleural pressure
What drives air into and out of the lungs? changes in intrapleural pressure
What happens when the pleural wall is stretchy? easy to inflate and hard to deflate
What happens when the pleural wall is stiff? hard to inflate, easy to deflate
How are most lung volumes and capacities measured? spirometer
What cannot be measured with spirometry alone? total lung capacity, functional residual capacity and residual volume
What is compliance? measure of stiffness that reflects the extent of elastic recoil
What is frictional resistance? tissue and air movement restriction
What are the two main forces that oppose air movement? compliance and frictional resistance
What is a pathologic result of increased compliance? emphysema. Easy to inflate and less elastic recoil
What is the pathologic result of reduced compliance? fibrosis or alveolar edema; hard to inflate and more elastic recoil
What is lung compliance dependent on? elastic tissue and alveolar surface tension
What causes surface tension? liquid lining of alveoli (surfactant)
What makes up the elastic tissue in the lung? elastin and collagen
What 3 things does emphysema increase? Total lung capacity, functional residual capacity and residual volume
What 3 things does fibrosis decrease? total lung capacity, functional residual capacity and residual volume
What does surface tension do to compliance? reduces it
What is atelectasis? alveolar collapse
What can cause atelectasis? increased surface tension
What cells produce surfactant? Type II alveolar cells
What does surfactant do? reduces surface tension in the alveoli
What is the effect of surfactant? increased compliance, increased alveolar stability and it keeps the lungs dry.
Created by: Todd Jamrose Todd Jamrose on 2009-01-08



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