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ScienceSemester exam

Jan 2009

Define the scientific method (scientific method)and list the steps. 1. State the problem or questions; 2. Form a testable hypothesis; 3. Design an experiment; 4. Collect & analyze data; 5. Draw conclusions & 6. Communicate results.
Define Hypothesis and give example. hypothesis implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation <a hypothesis explaining the extinction of the dinosaurs>
Define theory and give example. theory implies a greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth <the theory of evolution>
Define law and give example. law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions <the law of gravitation>.
What are the characteristics of a living organism? 1. Cells; 2. Reproduction; 3. Uses energy; 4. Chemicals of life; 5. Responds to the environment; & 6. Growth and development.
What are the 5 levels of organization? Cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms
Microscope - eyepiece You look through it to view your speciman.
Microscope - coarse adjustment knob Used to move the upper part of the microscope.
Microscope - Fine Adjustment Knob Used to fine-tune your focus on your speciman.
Microscope - High Power Objective Lense with high power
Microscope - Low Power Objective Lense with low power
Microscope - Diaphragm Controls the amount of light going through the aperture.
List 3 safety rules for the lab. 1. conduct yourself responsibly; 2. follow instructions; & 3. follow dress code.
Explain how to calculate total magnification for a microscope. Take the power of the objective and multiply by the power of the eye piece.
What is homeostasis? A point of balance in the body.
What are the three parts of cell theory? 1. All living things are made of cells. 2. Cells are the basic units of structure in all living things. 3. All cells are products of other cells.
Write the major contribution for each cell scientist. Hooke, Schwann, Schleiden and Virchow. Hooke looked at cork under microscope, Schwann said all animals have cells, Schleiden said all plants have cells, Virchow said all new cells come from exsisting cells
Explain how photosynthesis helps all living things. the process of photosynthesis changes carbon dioxide into oxygen.
What happens during photosynthesis (equation)? It turns light energy into chemical energy.
What are active and passive transport? Active transport is the movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy. Passive transport is the movement of dissovled materials through a cell membrane without the use of cellular energy.
List and describe 3 msin steps in the cell cycle. Interphase - Cell grows and makes copy of DNAMitosis - the nucleus dividesCytokinesis - the cell splits and the new daughter cells are made.
List the 4 phases of mitosis in order. prophasemetaphaseanaphasetelophase
What are chromosomes and what is their function? Chromosomes are rods of chromtin that store DNA
Define Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane.
Define Diffusion The main method by which small molecules move across the cell membrane.
Define mutation. A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene.
Define probability. Probability is the likelihood or chance that something is the case or will happen.
List and describe 3 main steps of the cell cycle. 1. interphase - cell grows and makes a copy of DNA. 2. Mitosis - the nucleus divides. 3. Cytokinesis - the cell splits and the new daughter cells are made.
List the 4 phases of mitosis in order. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase.
What are chromosomes and what is their function? Chromosomes are rods of chromatin that serve as storage for DNA.
Define Osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules through a selective p
Define Diffusion. Main method by which small molecules move across the cell.
What happens during respiration (equation)? Sugar + oxygen -------> carbon dioxide and water = energy
What is respiration? Cellular respiration, the process in which molecules are converted into useable energy
What are the differences between a plant and animal cell? A cell has a cell wall and an animal cell has chloroplsts.
Define Phenotype An organism's physical appearance or visible traits.
Define Genotype. An organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations.
Define Allele. Part of a pair.
Define Dominant Allele. An allele trait whose trait always shows up in an organism.
Define Recessive Allele. An allele whose trait is masked in the presence of a dominant allele.
What is a Punnett Square? A chart which predicts all possible gene combinations.
Who is the father of genetics and why? Gregor Mendel - his experiments with peas.
Descibe the structure of DNA. Which pairs go together? DNA is a double helix. It has two parts - 1. the back bone of a molecule and 2. bases, which are the side chains. Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine.
What is the relationship between chromosomes, DNA and genes? Chromosomes are made up of DNA and DNA is made of genes.
List 3 traits that are influenced by your genetic information. Height, muscles, and weight
What is meiosis? the process of reducitonal division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half.
How many chromosomes does each human cell begin and end with for: A) Mitosis? B) Meiosis? Mitosis - 46 and Mieosis - 23
Created by: Jon13