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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Glossary

Acoustic Neuroma Also called vestibular schwannoma; a benign tumor arising from nerve cells of the auditory nerve
After-Cataract When a cataract is removed from the eye, the physician opts to retain the posterior outermost shell so there remains an organic separation between the posterior and anterior chambers. Later, this remaining shell may develop opacities as well, and this is
Anterior Segment The cornea up to the vitreous body which includes the aqueous humor, iris, and lens
Aqueous Humor A clear, salty fluid filling the area behind the cornea and up to the lens. Aqueous humor fills the anterior chamber (between back of the cornea and the iris) and posterior chamber (peripheral part of the iris to the lens) of the eye
Blepharoplasty Surgical repair of the eyelid
Cataract Flaws or clouding that develop in the crystalline lens
Cerumen Ear wax
Cholesteatoma A benign growth of the skin in the middle ear, usually caused by chronic otitis media
Choroid The middle vascular layer between the retina and the sclera in the posterior segment of the eye. The choroid nourishes the retina
Ciliary body A thickened layer of the vascular tunic which contains the muscle that controls the shape of the lens
Cochlea An inner ear structure that looks like a snail shell. It is divided into two canals and the organ of Corti
Conduction Receptions or conveyance of sound, heat, or electricity. Sound waves are conducted to the inner ear through bones in the skull
Conjunctiva A thin protective layer lining the eyelid and covering the sclera
Cornea The bay window of the eye. The cornea has five layers, and they act to refract the light entering the eye
Crystalline Lens A convex disc suspend on threads just behind the iris
Dacryolith Calculus in the lacrimal sac or duct
Endolymph Fluid within the semicircular canals and the tubes of the cochlea of the inner ear
Enucleation Removal of a structure as the eyeball
Esotropia A condition where the eye deviates inward
Eustachian Tube A tube in the ear linking the middle ear to the nasopharynx. This tube equalizes pressure between the middle ear and the outer world
Evisceration A procedure where the contents if the eyeball are scooped out but the sclera shell remains connected to the eye muscles so that a prosthesis fitted into the globe will have natural movement
Exenteration Removal of a complete structure and the surrounding skin, fat, muscle, and bone
External Auditory Meatus Pathway from the pinna (outer ear) to the tympanic membrane
Extropia A condition where the eye deviates outward
Glaucoma A hypertensive condition of the eye caused by too much pressure from fluid
Goniotomy A procedure where an opening is made in the trabecular meshwork of the front part of the eye. The provider uses a goniolens during the procedure
Hypertropia A condition where the eye deviates upward
Incus A tiny (ossicle) in the middle ear
Iris A muscular ring around the pupil regulating the amount of light that enters the pupil. Also known as our source of eye color
Limbus The border where the cornea meets the sclera. Also known as the sclerocorneal junction
Malleus A tiny bone (ossicle) in the middle ear that picks up vibration fro the tympanic membrane
Mastoid A bone in the skull just behind the ear containing tiny air cells that also form a conductive path for sound
Mastoiditis Inflammation or infection of the mastoid bone
Meneire's Disease The most common form of peripheral vertigo, accompanied by hearing loss and tinnitus. The cause is unknown, although the symptoms may be caused by an increase in fluid pressure iin the ear
Microtia A congenital deformity of the ear whereby the pinna (external ear) is underdeveloped
Nystagmus Reflexive jerky eye movements as a response to the messages of the inner ear
Optic Nerve The nerve that transmits images from the eye to the brain. Damage to the optic nerve can result in loss of or impaired vision
Ossicles Three tiny bones in the middle ear; malleus, incus, and staples
Otitis Media Middle ear infection
Oval Window A membrane covered window from the inner ear to the middle ear
Perilymph Surrounds the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule of the vestibular system, and it surrounds the ducts in the cochlea. Inner channels are filled with endolymph
Puncta Tiny openings of the tear ducts
Pupil The opening of the center of the eye where the light enters
Refraction Bending and focusing of light rays into a sharp image
Retina Layer of tissue in the back of the eye that is light sensitive
Retinal Detachment The retina is freed from the blood-rich choroid at the back of the eye. When the retinal layer floats away, it loses its supply of nutrients. Nutrients must return or vision is lost
Retrobulbar Space behind the eye
Round Window A membrane-covered window that separates the middle ear from the inner ear, allowing vibrations to pass through the cochlea
Sclera The white outer skin of the eye, and is covered with a thin protective layer of conjunctiva layer of conjunctiva
Sclerocorneal junction The ring where the cornea meets the sclera. Also known as the limbus
Secondary Cataract See After-Cataract
Semicircular Canals Three tiny tubes in the inner ear filled with fluid (endolymph) to assist in balance
Stapes Tiny stirrup-shaped bone (ossicle) in the middle ear
Strabismus A condition where the eyes are not properly aligned with each other
Tenon's Capsule Connective tissue surrounding the posterior eyeball
Trachoma Bacterial infection of the eyes
Tympanic Membrane Thin, delicate tissue separating the outer ear from the middle ear. The tympanic membrane is part of the inner ear
Uvea The area beneath the sclera where the iris, choroid, and ciliary body meet
Vestibular Schwannoma A benign tumor arising from nerve cells of the auditory nerve (8th cranial nerve), also known as an acoustic neuroma
Vestibule Inner part of the ear connecting the semicircular canals and the cochlea. The vestibule contains the sense organs responsible for balance
Vertigo A whirling or spinning perception of motion resulting in the loss of balance
Visual Field The total are that can be seen by peripheral vision
Vitreous Humor A gel-like mass that fills the large posterior segment of the eye
Created by: BBracha