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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Misc

Femoral Nerve Sensory and motor nerve supplying the front of the thigh and part of the lower leg
Comon Fibular Nerve (common peroneal) Sensory and motor nerve supplying the knee and superior tibiofibular joints and tibialis anterior muscle. It divides into superficial and deep fibular (peroneal) nerves; a branch of the sciatic nerve supplying movement and sensation to the lower leg, foot
Intercostal Nerves The upper thoracic nerves innervate primarily the chest and upper abdomen; the only nerves not originating from the plexus
Median Nerve Innervates most flexor muscles of the forearm and provides sensation for the thumb, index, middle fingers, and a portion of the finger. It is the only nerve passing through the carpel tunnel
Musculocutaneous Nerve Sensory and motor nerve of the coracobronchialis, biceps brachii, and the greater part of the brachialis (the bicep and side of forearm). It arises from the brachial plexus
Radial Nerve Innervates the triceps brachii muscle of the arm and all 12 muscles in the posterior osteofascial compartment of the forearm
Saphenous Nerve Sensory nerve of the knee joint, subsartorial, and patellar plexuses, and the skin on the medial side of the leg and foot
Sciatic Nerve The largest nerve of the body, derived from spinal nerves L4 through the buttock and down the lower limb. It supplies the skin of the leg and the muscles of the back of the thigh. It divides just above the knee into the tibial and common fibular (common p
Subcostal Nerves Sensory and motor nerves of the skin of the lower abdomen and lateral side of gluteal region, and parts of abdominal transverse, oblique, and rectus muscles
Tibial Nerve Sensory and motor nerve, supplies the muscles and the skin of the knee, calf, and sole of the foot, and toes; a branch of the sciatic nerve
Ulnar Nerve Provides sensation for the little finger and a portion of the ring finger, and innervates some muscles of the hand and forearm
Cervical Plexus Serves the head, neck, and shoulders
Brachial Plexus Serves the chest, shoulders, arms, and hands
Lumbar Plexus Serves the back, abdomen, groin, thighs, knees, and calves
Sacral Plexus Serves the pelvis, buttocks, genitals, thighs, calves, and feet
Solar or Coccygeal Plexus Serves internal organs
Acromegaly Characterized by enlarged skeletal parts, especially the nose, ears, jaws, fingers, and toes; caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland
Cushing's Syndrome An excess of cortisol, caused either by overactive adrenal gland or glucocorticoid medications; may result in excess fatty tissue if the face, neck, and body, curvature of sine, weakness, and other symptoms
Goiter An enlarged thyroid gland, caused by overproduction of thyroid hormone (TSH) or a neoplasm. A diet deficient in iodine can result in a goiter; however, this is rarely the cause
Hyperparathyroidism Overactive parathyroid; may result in bone bone deterioration, reduced reduced renal function, kidney stones, and other difficulties.
Hyperaldosteronism Oversecretion of aldosterone by the adrenal glands; result in fluid retention and hypertension
Hypoparathyroidism Underactive parathyroid; may result in muscle cramps, and cataracts, among other difficulties
Hypothyroidism Underactive thyroid; too little thyroid hormone produced (the opposite of hyperthyroidism); may result in children with mental retardation and small stature. In adults, this condition results in lower metabolism, fatigue, and fluid in the tissues - myedem
Panhypopituitarism Damage to or absence of pituitary gland, which may result in impaired sexual function, weight loss, fatigue, depression, and other symptoms
Prolactioma A benign tumor of the pituitary gland, production of a hormone called prolactin. In women high blood levels of prolactin can result in infertility and changes in menstruation. In men, most common symptom of prolactinoma is impotence
Thyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid gland
Thyrotoxicosis Refers to the hypermetabolic clinical syndrome resulting from serum elevations in thyroid hormone levels. An overproduction of thyroid hormones, caused by hyperthyroidism, or an overactive thyroid gland is a type of thyrotoxicosis; however, hyperthyroidis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig's Disease) A type of motor neuron disease affecting nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord controlling voluntary muscle movement
Ataxia Lack of muscle movement coordination
Cerebral Lipidoses Genetic disorder causing lipid accumulation the brain
Cerebral Palsy A group of genetic disorders involving brain and nervous system functions such as movement, learning, hearing, vision, and thought; there are several types of cerebral palsy, including spastic, dyskinetic, ataxic, hypotonic, and mixed
Dyskinesia Uncontrolled muscle movement
Hydrocephalus Abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles or cavities of the brain
Myelopathy Dysfunction of the spinal cord
Myoclonus Spontaneous, uncontrolled twitching of a muscle of group of muscles
Neuropathy Dysfunction of the nerves (eg, peripheral neuropathy is dysfunction of the nerves of the peripheral nervous system)
Paraplegia Impairment in motor sensory function of the lower extremities
Reye's Syndrome Affects all organs of the body but is most harmful to the brain and the liver and it is defined as a two phase illness because it generally occurs in conjunction with a previous viral infection such as the flu or chicken pox
Syringomyelia Disorder in which a cyst (syrinx) forms within the spinal cord; the cyst expands over time damaging the cord
Anoxic Brain Damage Brain injury due to lack of oxygen; report an E code in addition to identifying cause (birth trauma is excluded from 348.1 Anoxic brain damage)
Cataplexy Sudden onset of muscle weakness with loss of tone and strength; triggered by intense emotion
Diplegic Paralysis of like parts on either side of the body
Dural Tear The dura is the outermost of the three layers compromising the meninges, which surround the brain and spinal cord. A tear in the dura may result in loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Grand Mal Status Sudden loss of consciousness followed by generalized convulsions in epilepsy; see also Petit Mal Status
Encephalopathy Disorder or disease of the brain; does not refer to single disease, but rather to a syndrome caused by any number of disease
Epilepsy A brain disorder characterized by electrical-like disturbances. May be convulsive of nonconvulsive, generalized or localized; symptoms may include occasional impairment and loss of consciousness, abnormal movement, and sensory disturbance
Hemiplegic Paralysisis affecting one side of the body
Monoplegic Paralysis in one limb (arm or leg)
Multiple Sclerosis The body directs antibodies and white blood cells against proteins in the myelin sheath surrounding nerves in the brain and spinal cord, causing inflammation and injury to the sheath and ultimately to the nerves. The damage slows or blocks muscle coordina
Narcolepsy Brief, recurrent, uncontrollable episodes of sound sleep, often during the day
Petit Mal Status Minor, involuntary muscle movement or brief (usually less then 15 seconds) disturbance in brain function (staring spell) due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Person is usually wide awake and thinking clearly immediately after the seizure
Quadraplegic Paralysis in all four limbs (arms and legs)
Bell's Palsy A temporary form of facial paralysis, occurs with damage to Cranial Nerve VII, the nerve controlling movement of the muscles in the face
Carpel Tunnel Syndrome Compression of the median nerve (median nerve entrapment); may result in pain, tingling, numbness, and a burning sensation in the hand
Causalgia Intense burning pain and sensitivity to the vibration or touch
Demyelination Damage to the myelin sheath of neurons, occurs in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Geniculate Ganglionitis Involves severe pain deep in the ear, may be caused by compression of the somatic sensory branch of Cranial Nerve (VII). This may also develop following herpes zoster oticus
Mononeuritis Inflammation of a single nerve
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) A group of disorders involving muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue, progress overtime
Myoneural Disorders Disorders affecting both muscles and nerves (eg, Myasthenia gravis)
Myotonia Slow relaxation of the muscles after voluntary contraction or electrical stimulation; individuals with myotonia (a symptom of certain neuromuscular disorders) may have trouble releasing their grip on objects, or may have difficulty rising from a sitting p
Neuralgic Amyotrophy (Parsonage-Aldren-Turner Syndrome, Brachial Neuritis,Brachial Plexitis) Pain and muscle weakness affecting the upper extremity often in response to stressors such as surgery, infection, minor trauma, etc.
Polyneuritis Inflammation if several peripheral nerves simulataneously
Trigeminal Neuralgia Inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. Cranial Nerve V (CN V) delivers feeling to the face
Created by: BBracha