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FY- M4

Human Systems I

Increasing the pH reduces the solubility of __ Calcium
Enhance the absorption Vitamin D, Lactose
Vitamin D, Promotes the synthesis of Ca binding protein
Lactose Maintain Ca in Soluble form
Which factors contribute to inhibiting the absorption of Ca ions Oxalic Acid, high fat diet
Bone is Collagen stiffened by crystals of calcium hydroxyapatite
mineral Bone Calcium and Phosphate
Osteogenesis production of extracellular matrix, crystallization with calcium
Osteoclasts Bone Resorption "Degrading"
Osteoblasts Bone Building "Forming"
Osteocytes Come from Osteoblasts when trapped in the matrix.
Osteoporosis Disease where the amount of bone is reduced significantly Osteoclast > Osteoblast
Osteoporosis Female, Age, Estrogen deficiency
Osteoporosis Treatment Antiresorptive agent, Stop Osteoblast, Osteoclast Peptide hormone, Bisphosphonates, Estrogents
Selective Estrogen Receptor modulator Raloxifene
Estrogen Therapy Estradiol , Bisphosphonates
Bisphosphonates Most widely prescribed antiresorptive agent
General Structure of Bisphosphonates ?? Draw
Non N-containing Bisphosphonates Enhance osteoclast apoptosis
N-containing Bisphosphonates Block signals important for osteoclast activity
Transdermal Drug delivery TDD Delivery of drugs through the skin into systemic circulation.
TDD Advantages Reduce metabolism "degradation" effect, reduce side effect, allow removal of drug source, low sustained delivery of drugs, self-administration and removal of drug source, Non-invasive
TDD Disadvantages Potential skin irritation, poor diffusion of large molecules
TTD Patches Types Reservoir Type, Matrix Type
limitations of TTD Low molecular weight 500, lipid/water Soluble, Small required dose
TDD penetration enhancement techniques Chemical approaches,Physical Approaches
TDD Chemical penetration enhancement techniques Surfactants Fatty Acids/esters, Solvents
Iontophoresis Low Voltage applied, Charged molecules move away dragging solvent
TDD Physical penetration enhancement techniques microneedles, Electroporation, Iontophoresis
Ligament Attaches bone to bone
Muscles that close a joint flexor
Muscles that open a joint extensor
Muscles contract in two ways Isotonic contraction Isometric contraction
Two types of Isotonic contraction • Concentric – Muscle shortens • Eccentric – Muscle lengthens
The thin filament is made up of three different components: A double stranded F-actin A double stranded tropomyosin A troponin
Scoliosis Curvature of the spine
Absorption primarily occurs in ـــــــــ since ــــــــ pH duodenum، low
Non N-containing bisphosphonates: inhibiting the attachment of osteoclasts to bone matrix Enhance osteoclast apoptosis
N-containing bisphosphonates Inhibit modification of proteins required for signaling
Wien’s Displacement Law if we know the temperature of the object, we can determine the peak wavelength using
Epidermis stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basale KLGSB
hair is particularly long or thick which is a condition known as Hypertrichosis
is the inappropriate growth of hair in a female Hirsutism
is a patchy loss of hair ALOPECIA AREATA
Stratum corneum Vertically-stacked, corneocytes surrounded by a lipid-rich matrix
Electroporation creation of aqueous pores in lipid bilayers by the application of a short high voltage electric pulse.
Capacitance (C) measured in Farads and is defined as the charge stored per unit voltage
capacitors (C1 and C2) are connected in series 1/Ctot = 1/C1 + 1/C2
If the capacitors are connected in parallel Ctot= C1+C2
fibrillation is the random, chaotic electrical activity of the heart.
in the Axoplasm high concentration of potassium K+ ions relatively low concentration of sodium Na+ ions
Sodium/potassium pump 2k in 3 Na out
Membrane potential is maintained by Sodium/potassium pump, Ion channels
Phases in an action potential: 1. Depolarization 2. Repolarization 3. Hyperpolarization 4. Refraction
One long dendrite One short axon pseudounipolar
The dendrite of a______ neuron is structurally and functionally an axon pseudounipolar
White matter Formed exclusively of axons
Contain the somata, dendrites and a few axons Grey matter
In the CNS, a neuroglial cell called the______ oligodendrocyte
in ________ The axons are not wrapped in myelin but embedded in a groove in the Schwann cell cytoplasm which fuses forming the ______. Non-Myelinated Nerve Fibres , mesaxon
Organic bone Type 1 collagen
Created by: Naser