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Pathology Q3

hyperemia a condition which refers to excess blood in a body part
active hyperemia excess blood in a body part which was actively, or purposely, taken there by the arterial system in the body
active physiological hyperemia if the active hyperemia results from a normal, everyday, healthy bodily function
active pathological hyperemia if the active hyperemia is a result of some disease process
passive hyperemia occurs when venous drainage from an area is decreased *always pathological *localized or generalized
localized passive hyperemia occurs due to formation of a blood clot in a vein, thickening of vessel walls, and/or pressure from an outside lesion
generalized passive hyperemia normally a result of a heart disorder which affects the efficiency of the heart's pumping action
hypostatic congestion blood settling to the dependent parts of the body when gravity overcomes the normal flow of blood through the circulatory system *caused by reduced pressure from the heart
cyanosis bluish discoloration of tissues due to lack of oxygen
thrombosis the formation of a solid mass, or blood clot, within the heart or vessels of the body *abnormal
thrombus solid mass, or blood clot, that forms within the heart or blood vessels; stays where it forms
embolism the condition of an object having floated through the bloodstream and causing an obstruction of a vessel
embolus a fragment of a blood clot; moves through vessels
causes of thrombosis injury to the lining of the heart or vessels diseases of the blood itself slowing of the blood flow
causes of embolism when a thrombus or piece of thrombus breaks loose and lodges elsewhere in the body clumps of bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells fat globules foreign particles air or gas bubbles
ischemia decreased blood flow to a body part; causes lack of oxygen delivery to the affected part
causes of ischemia thrombus atherosclerosis pressure from a growing tumor
infarction an area of tissue which was deprived of it blood supply dies as a result of ischemia
ischemic necrosis infarction
infarct area of dead tissue caused by ischemia
dry gangrene ischemic necrosis
moist/true necrosis necrotic tissue which has been invaded by bacteria; often associated with disturbances to the venous return of blood from an area
causes of moist/true necrosis crushing injuries of the toes & feet freezing of the tissues which occurs during frostbite diabetes mellitus
hemorrhage the escape of blood form the vascular system
main reason for hemorrhage a break in the walls of a vessel
petechiae pin-point hemorrhages
ecchymosis larger irregular patches of hemorrhage in the tissue (bruises); localized to area of trauma & circumscribed
purpura widespread areas of hemorrhage into the skin or mucous membranes; not localized nor circumscribed
hematoma tumor-like swelling filled with blood; ex: blood blister
melena very dark, tarry feces or vomitus
hemothorax bleeding into the pleural cavity
hemapericardium bleeding into the pericardial cavity
hemoperitoneum bleeding into the peritoneal cavity
hemoptysis blood in the sputum (or from the lungs)
hematemesis blood in the vomit (or from the stomach)
epistaxis bleeding from the nose
coagulation the process of blood changing from a liquid, free-flowing form, into a semisolid state
circulatory shock the condition which results from a serious reduction of blood flow in the body, resulting in reduced oxygen supply to the tissues
characteristics of circulatory shock - state of collapse - depressed vital signs - weak, rapid pulse - low blood pressure - shallow breathing - cold & clammy skin, especially in the extremities
syncope fainting; caused by temporary decrease of blood flow to the brain
edema an excess accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body; extravascular
pitting edema tissues become so waterlogged that they take on a doughy consistency and retain the impression of a fingerprint when pressed upon
main causes of edema - heart failure - venous or lymphatic obstruction - increased capillary permeability, such as that which occurs during inflammation - decreased osmotic pressure of plasma proteins
anasarca generalized or widespread edema
exudate edema which collects around an inflammation site
hydrothorax edema of the pleural cavity
hydopericardium edema of the pericardial caivty
ascites edema of the peritoneal cavity
dehydration decrease in total body fluids; a.k.a. dessication
causes of dehydration - high body temperature during febrile diseases - high environmental temperatures, which also cause excessive sweating - gastrointestinal diseases which result in excessive vomiting or diarrhea - glandular diseases
plasma the liquid portion of blood, which consists of approximately 90% water, fibrin, salts & proteins
thrombocytes platelets/clotting cells
erythrocytes red blood cells
erythrocytes carry oxygen to the tissues of the body & remove carbon dioxide; most numerous of the blood cells
leukocytes white blood cells
leukocytes important in the body's defense mechanisms, such as phagocytosis & antibody formation
types of leukocytes 1. neutrophils 2. eosinophils 3. basophils 4. lymphocytes 5. monocytes
platelets/thrombocytes involved in the process of clot formation
anemia a decrease in the number of red blood cells and/or hemoglobin
symptoms of anemia weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath upon exertion, lightheadedness
primary anemia decreased production of red blood cells
secondary anemia increased loss or destruction of red blood cells
pernicious anemia deficiency disease that results from a lack of vitamin B12 being absorbed from the digestive tract, which is important in the normal development of blood cells, including red blood cells (a primary anemia)
symptoms of pernicious of anemia smooth, red, painful tongue & damage to the nervous system
aplastic anemia virtual stoppage of blood cell production in the bone marrow; most serious type of anemia; idiopathic (a primary anemia)
sickle-cell anemia genetic defect in the manufacture of hemoglobin that results in abnormal crescent-shaped red blood cells (hemolytic/secondary anemia)
erythroblastosis fetalis problem of blood incompatibility between a mother and her unborn fetus; mother who is Rh- carries a child who is Rh+ (hemolytic/secondary anemia)
leukocytosis an increase in the number of circulation white blood cells, and is an important defense mechanism of the body when it occurs in a temporary, or transient fashion (iron deficiency anemia)
leukemia a malignancy of the hemopoietic tissues of the body, and is sometimes referred to as "cancer of the blood"
leukopenia decrease in white blood cells
polycythemia increase in the number of blood cells in the body
erythrocytosis increase in red blood cells
hemophilia hereditary bleeding disorder, characterized by a greatly prolonged clotting time for blood; sex-linked inherited disorder; affect males, transmitted by females
thrombocytopenia decreased number of platelets or thrombocytes in the blood
purpura (thrombocytopenic purpura) widespread, spontaneous hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes
ecchymosis bruise-like patches of hemorrhage under the skin
petechiae small, red spots of hemorrhage, often described as "pinpoint" hemorrhages
Created by: leahmurphy