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PHS Unit 6, Part 1

Anatomy, Physiology & Body Systems

anatomy Study of structures of the body
physiology Study of the functions of the structures of the body
pathophysiology Study of the processes of disease in the body
homeostasis Process that maintains balance of the body’s internal environment in response to changes in the external environment
cells Microscopic structures that carry out all functions of life
tissues Cells of similar type join together for a common purpose
epithelial tissue Covers surface of the body; lining of organs & body cavities
connective tissue Supports organs & body parts
3 types of connective tissue soft; hard; liquid
2 types of soft connective tissue adipose & fibrous
2 types of hard connective tissue bone & cartilage
2 types of liquid connective tissue blood & lymph
adipose connective soft tissue insulates the body & is stored energy
fibrous connective soft tissue holds structures together (examples: ligament & tendons)
bone hard connective tissue gives the body rigid structure
cartilage hard connective tissue acts as a shock absorber and allows for flexibility; found at end of long bones & between vertebrea
blood liquid connective tissue transports nutrients and oxygen to body cells and carries away waste products
lymph liquid connective tissue transports waste products and proteins out of spaces between the cells of the body tissues
4 types of tissue epithelial, connective, nerve and muscle
nerve tissue controls & coordinates body activities by transmitting messages
muscle tissue produces power and movement
dehydration insufficient amount of water in tissues
edema excess amount of fluid in tissues
visceral (smooth) muscle tissue present in lining of digestive, respiratory & urinary systems
cardiac muscle tissue causes the heart to beat
skeletal muscle tissue attaches to bone & provides movement
integumentary system hair, nails, skin, sweat and oil glands
integumentary sysytem helps regulate body temperature; protect body from dehydration, infection and injury
skeletal system bones and cartilage
skeletal system creates structure and framework of the body; produces blood cells; protects internal organs
muscular system skeletal, visceral (smooth) & cardiac muscles
muscular system contract and relax to enable body movements; generate heat
nervous system nerves, brain, spinal cord and special sense organs
nervous system sends electrical messages throughout body to coordinate and control body activities
circulatory or cardiovascular system heart, blood vessels and blood
circulatory or cardiovascular system transports blood around body to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products
lymphatic system lymph nodes, lymph vessels, spleen, tonsils and thymus glad
lymphatic system removes waste from tissues, helps with immunity and absorbs fat and fat-soluble vitamins from the small intestine
respiratory system lungs, nose, nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
respiratory system exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide
digestive system mouth, salivary glands, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, intestine, liver, gallbladder and pancrease
digestive system physical/chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; transports food and eliminates waste
urinary system kidney, ureters, bladder, urethra
urinary system filters blood to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance; eliminates waste via urine
endocrine system pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal and gonads
endocrine system secretes hormones to regulate body processes
reproductive system females: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, breasts males: testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis
reproductive system enables reproduction
osteoporosis soft, porous bones due to lack of adequate calcium in the diet
muscle sprain overstretching or tear in a ligament
multiple sclerosis (MS) chronic, progressive and disabling disease of the nervous system
atherosclerosis fatty plaque build-up in the arterial walls
arteriosclerosis hardening/thickening of the arterial walls
adenitis inflammation of the glands due to an infection
emphysema non-infectious lung disease when the alveoli lose their elasticity; primary cause is tobacco use
diarrhea loose, watery stools due to inflection, stress, poor diet or an irritated colon
constipation hard, infrequent stools due to lack of fiber and water intake and lack of exercise
urethritis urinary tract infection
diabetes mellitus (DM) chronic illness due insufficient insulin
muscle strain overstretching of a muscle and/or tendon
organs two or more tissues join together to perform a specific function
body systems several organs and body parts join together for a common function
Created by: vorachekt