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History of F.S. Q3


the study of past events & cultures and their influence on present conditions, usually through the use of written records history
knowledge obtained by asking questions historia
Egyptian cemetery necropolis
Egyptian sun god Ra
Egyptian river god Hapi
a socially powerful & traditional narrative story that expresses & explores the values & concerns of a group myth
Egyptian god of dying & resurrection Osiris
Egyptian god of embalming & protector of the dead Anubis
oldest culture to practice embalming Egyptians
abode of the living (Egypt) the East
abode of the dead (Egypt) the West
wife of Osiris Isis
first mode of disposition (Egyptian) burial directly in sand
earliest type of Egyptian tomb mastaba
second mode of disposition (Egyptian) mastaba
when did embalming hit its peak in Egypt? the New Kingdom
Arabic for "mummification" mumya
Circle of Necessity the Ba, the Yakhu, your name, your shadow, your heart, the Ka
components of natron sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate
historian who wrote about Egyptian embalming process Herodotus
baboon-headed god Hapy
human-headed god Mestha
jackal/dog-headed god Tuamutef
hawk/falcon-headed gad Qebsennuf
Which god protected the small intestine? (canopic jar) Hapy (baboon)
Which god protected the stomach & large intestine? (canopic jar) Mestha (human)
Which god protected the lungs? (canopic jar) Tuamutef (jackal/dog)
Which god protected the liver & gall bladder? (canopic jar) Qebsennuf (hawk/falcon)
Who was the first step pyramid built for? King Djosen
Who built/designed the first step pyramid? Imhotep
How many levels did the first step pyramid have? 6 (level=mastaba)
first culture to devise a method to preserve the dead Egyptians
Which ancient culture believed in a dual life force consisting of body & soul? Greek
Who believed death is an unmitigated disaster? Greek
deepest antichamber of Hades Tartarus
dying & rising god (Greek) Dionysus
goddess of growth & fertility (Greek) Demeter
secret ceremonies held for members only mystery religions
play by Euripides about female Dionysus worshippers the Bacchae
first culture to practice cremation Greek
Greeks believed that the power of the flame... set the soul free
play by Sophocles about the need to bury the dead Antigone
preparation and laying out of the body done by female relatives of the deceased (Greek) prothesis
funeral & procession (Greek) Ekphora
funeral oration (Greek) epitaphios
funeral banquet (Greek) Perideiprion
baked clay container for holding a dead body (Greek) larnax
What was the mode of disposition for Greek slaves? cremated & scattered in common burial ground
T/F: The Romans believed in an afterlife true
at death the life force left the body but hung around where the body was buried and was still dependent on food & drink for life and if neglected it came after you as a ghost (Roman) animism
Roman group that had a fear of death and didn't believe in an afterlife Epicureans
T/F: Romans practiced both burial and cremation true
T/F: Romans did not bury within the city walls true
How were the deceased Romans laid out for their funerals? eating position
When did Constantine reign? 4th century AD
When did the church take over burials in Rome? 4th century AD (Constantine)
"Body" (Hebrew) bashar
"Spirit" (Hebrew) nefesh
T/F: The Hebrews believed burial grounds to be haunted true
"He is in heaven" (Hebrew) In the bosom of Abraham
Hebrew burial practices washed, anointed, dressed the best, buried before sundown
Hebrew mourning tore garments, shaved beards, covered their heads, make face with dust or ashes
T/F: The Hebrews did not bury within city walls true
recreation as a new and improved body (Christian) resurrection
Did the early Christians practice burial, cremation, or both? burial -- no cremation
Who believed death is a temporary state? Christians
communion before death viaticum
Christian preparation of the dead washing, dressing, clothed in white, no embalming unless in Egypt
T/F: Christians did not bury within city walls true
During the Middle Ages & Renaissance, were funerals simple or elaborate? elaborate
During the Middle Ages & Renaissance, what were the dead dressed in? new white clothing
During the Middle Ages & Renaissance, where did funerals take place? inside the church
How were English royalty dressed in death? in leather or full armor
Who formed burial clubs and why? English -- to ensure a decent burial for anyone & everyone
Who avoided pompish funeral ceremonies? American Colonists
Who saw death as a reality & didn't ignore it? American Colonists
American Colonist funeral practices luncheon, grave marker with epitaph, burial with coffin/casket, wood coffins
position that evolved in 17th/18th centuries that eventually evolved into position of local registrar & dictated to the funeral director and sometimes doubled as a coroner municipal officer
archaic name for registrar nosologist
When was early American funeral directing born as an occupation? 19th century
lower Egypt North
upper Egypt South
intellect & emotions of the deceased (Egypt) the heart
vital life force of the deceased (Egypt) the Ka
personality of the deceased (Egypt) the Ba
T/F: Natron is midly antiseptic true
law passed by Parliament during Renaissance that required use of wool Burial in Woolen Act
organization that had authority over burials in Middle Ages church
When did wooden coffins come into play? 18th century
Which two cultures NEVER practice cremation? Hebrew & Egyptian
What caused cemeteries to be moved out of population centers? Black Plague
major Roman influence on modern day funerals funeral procession
Pagan burials were ____, Christian burials were ____ ostentatious, simple
5 universal beliefs about death 1. some survival after death 2. careful & reverent care of the deceased 3. separation of dead from living 4. ambivalent feeling of love and respect as well as fear of the dead 5. distinctions based on wealth & social class
Created by: leahmurphy