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Genetics Test

Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Alleles Different forms of the same gene
Homozygous/ Purebred Dominant Organism that has two identical alleles for a trait (such as SS)
23 chromosomes The number of chromosomes present in a human sex cell
DNA Found inside the nucleus that controls all cell activities
Genes Set of instructions for each characteristic that are donated by the parent to the offspring
Genotype Actual inherited combination of alleles
Phenotype Organism's appearance
25% Two plants are crossed Ttx Tt, the probability that the offspring plants will show the recessive trait
Interphase Cells are not dividing, the stage of the cell cycle they are in
Two functions of chromosomes Determine traits and control cell processes
DNA molecule, base pairs C + G, A + T
DNA strand, sides of the ladder Sugar and phosphate
Nitrogenous pairs Rungs of the ladder in a DNA molecule
Meiosis purpose Create four daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as body cell
Mitosis purpose Create identical daughter cells; same number as body cells
If a plant has 20 chromosomes in its egg cells, how many chromosomes would its leaf cell contain? 40 chromosomes
Why mitosis is important Allows chromosomes to separate into the new daughter cells and replaced old and malfunctioning cells
Steps of mitosis Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Sex cells and human cells difference They have half the number of chromosomes
The genotype Tt means what to geneticists One dominant and one recessive allele
Punnett square shows what All possible outcomes of a genetic cross
Heterozygous organism Organism with one dominant allele and one recessive allele; different alleles for traits
Why cell produce new cells To replace cells that have died
Telophase New nuclear membranes form
Chromosomes Genes are located on this
If an organism has 40 chromosomes in its body cells, how many chromosomes would be in its egg cell? 20 chromosomes
Why daughter cells must be identical to the parent cell So they do the same function or job as the parent cell
How many chromosomes human have 46 chromosomes
Metaphase Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Anaphase Chromosomes split and chromatids move to opposite sides
How asexual reproduction is important to humans Many body cells reproduce this way
Before a cell divides The cell has to copy all its DNA
Order of the cell cycle Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
RNA has thymine False
DNA has thymine True
Deoribonucleic acid DNA
Ribonucleic acid RNA
Ribose sugar present RNA
Deoxyribose sugar present DNA
Sugar is linked to a phosphate group at one end and a nitrogenous base at the other end DNA, RNA
Polymer of nucelotides DNA, RNA
Adenine present DNA, RNA
Thymine DNA
Uracil RNA
Cytosine DNA, RNA
Guanine DNA, RNA
Two double chains held in a double helix by hydrogen bonds DNA
Single-stranded RNA
Contains a chemical code or message which must be transcribed DNA
Mendel Father of genetics
Gene Basic unit of heredity located on the chromosome
Phenotype What an organism looks like because of the inherited genes
Heredity Passing of traits to the offspring
Dominant The gene that covers up another gene
Purebred When both genes are the same
Heterozygous Another name for being a hybrid for a trait
Genotype What the genes are (the letters)
Allele Different forms of the same gene, dominant or recessive
Recessive The gene that is covered or masked
Hybrid When the alleles are dominant and recessive (Hh)
Probability The likelihood that an event will occur
Homozygous Another name for being a purebred for a trait
The number of genes that usually control a characteristic 2 genes
Punnett square The special chart that shows the possible combination of genes
Meiosis Reproductive process that forms gametes that contain one-half of the chromosomes that contain the genes needed for each trait
What Gregor Mendel used to test his theories Pea plants
The gene is actually a section of what located in the nucleus DNA
Created by: 1962116900