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INTL3300 midterm

Comparative Politics

Comparative Politics the subfield of political science that aims to analyze multiple cases using the comparative method
Empirical drawn from observations of the world
Normative concerned with specifying which sort of practice or institution is morally or ethically justified
Sartori's ladder of abstraction the idea that we can organize concepts on the basis of their specificity
Operationalization the process through which we take our basic concepts and render them measurable
Level of analysis the level (individual, organizational, societal) at which casual processes operate
Most-similar-systems (MSS) A research design in which we compare cases that are similar with respect to a number of factors but with distinct outcomes
Most-different-systems (MDS) a research design in which we compare cases that differ with respect to multiple factors but in which the outcome is the same
Comparative checking the process of testing the conclusions from a set of comparisons against additional cases or evidence
Generalizability the quality that a given theory, hypothesis, or finding has of being applicable to a wide number of cases
Within-case comparison the comparative analysis of variation that takes place over time or in distinct parts of a single case
Deductive reasoning the process of moving from general claims or theories to specific observations or predictions about a phenomenon or set of cases
Deviant case a case that does not fit the pattern predicted by a given theory
Inductive reasoning the process of moving from specific observations to general claims
Inference the process through which we aim to test observable implications of any given theory
Correlation a relationship between two variables in which they tend to move in either the same direction (positive) or in opposite directions (negative)
Falsifiability the testability of a theory or hypothesis
Endogeneity the name given to any circumstance in which two variables exhibit mutual or reciprocal effects
Scope Conditions The conditions or range for which an argument works
Empirical Critique an effort to point to important evidence that does not support a conventional version of any given theort
Theoretical Critique An effort to show that a given theory has logical limitations
Indicator an element or feature that indicates the presence of an underlying factor
measurement validity whether or not a given measure effectively captures or represents what we are researching
rule of law a system that imposes regularized rules in a polity, with key criteria
modern state a concept used to distinguish states in a modern world from earlier forms of political centralization; it includes features such as extensive bureaucracy, centralization of violence, and impersonality
state capacity the ability of the state to achieve its objectives, especially the abilities to control violence, effectively tax the population, and maintain well-functioning institutions and the rule of law
failed state a state that cannot or does not perform its expected functions
human capital the education, skills, health, and other qualities individuals and groups possess that affect their economic prospects
state building the process through which states are constructed out of other kinds of polities, or by which state capacity is increased
civil society a space in society outside of the organization of the state in which citizens come together and organize themselves
bureaucracy a form of that, in its ideal form, has individuals operating and working under established, specified, and complex rules
impersonality a quality attributed by some scholars to modern states, which are presumed to be less likely to be identified with the personalities of their leaders
citizenship a form of relationship between the state and individuals subject to its control, in which citizens have basic rights and are in some way represented in the state
sovereignty the key way the authority of the modern state is conceptualized; states are understood to be the ultimate authority within their specifically demarcated territories
economic management states' efforts to shape the economic performance of their societies, especially in fiscal and monetary policy
fiscal policy budget setting, which is dependent on generating revenue followed by government spending
monetary policy states' efforts to shape the value of a society's currency, often through the use of a central bank
welfare state a state that aims to provide a basic safety net for the most vulnerable elements of its population, often accomplished through social insurance, public health care, and poverty relief
state system the condition that many of the most important actors in international relations are states, which can be understood as systemically linked to one another
bellicist theory theory associated with scholars such as charles tilly, who argue that interstate wars were decisive in the creation of the modern state
diffusion the process through which a practice or idea spreads locally, nationally, and globally
organization institutionalized group such as state, corporation, political party, social movement of international body
isomorphism in institutional theory, the quality that two or more organizations have by virtue of being structurally very similar
world society theory a theory associated with scholars such as John Meyer
development a process by which a society changes or advances
GDP the total value of goods and services produced in a given country or territory; per capita GDP divided by population
GNI (gross national income) a measure of the total income of all a country's citizens, whether living in their home country or abroad
purchasing power parity (PPP) an adjustment made to income measures to account for differences in cost of living
gini coeffecient the most common measure of income inequality in any given population, usually expressed as a number between 0 and 1, with 0 being total equality and 1 being maximal inequality
Human development index a compostie measure developed by the UN to provide a broad view of annual development and well being around the world. based on income, life expectancy, and literacy/school enrollments
utility the value that people derive from resources to which they have access
political economy the interaction or interrelationship between politics and the economy in a given country or internationally, to include how politics
institutionalism the theory that places emphasis on the power of institutions to shape the behavior of individuals
social capital advantage that indivudals or groups hold by virtue of their social relationships
social class a contested term which aims to conceptualize how access to resources is patterned in society, with an emphasis on income distribution and the possible identification or common interest one may share with others of similar economic means
dependency a theory that argues that developing countries cannot simply embrace free trade because this will lead to ever-increasing wealth disparities between them and the advanced economies
democracy a form of regime associated with "rule by the people" that signifies rights and liberties
political rights rights of individuals to participate in political life (right to poitical speech, the right to vote, the right to join pol. orgs)
civil rights rights of individuals to participate in civic life, including freedoms of assembly, speech, access to info, and equal access to instituitions, among others
regime a form of governmental system, with an emphasis on institutions and rules
democratic regime a regime with predominantly democratic institutions, including basic civil rights and regular, free elections
procedural definition of democracy a conception of democracy that emphasizes the minimal standards, procedures, or rules that a country should have in place to govern political life
substantive definition of democracy a conception of democracy that views a polity's democratic status as dependent on the satisfaction of certain substantive ends, such as the extension of broad rights or reduction of income inequality
democratization the process of a regime becoming more democratic, including both democratic transition and consolidation
transition the movement from an authoritarian regime to a democratic one
consolidation the process through which a new democratic order becomes institutionalized and therefore more likely to endure
constitutional republic a polity without a monarch in which the basic rules of politics are laid out in the constitution
constitutional monarchy a monarch plays a role as a head of state, but has powers limited by a constitution
representative democracy politicians and institutions are understood to represent the electorate, who never the less can constrain their behavior through periodic elections and other forms of participation
multiparty democracy at least two parties compete for power in a democracy
referendum a popular vote on a specific issue
direct democracy a conception of democracy that places great emphasis on direct citizen involvement in politics, especially involving plebiscites and/or citizen assemblies
modernization theory a theory that traces democracy to broad social changes, especially economic development and the changes that accompany it
authoritarianism a form of government or regime that is non-democratic
hybrid regime a class of regime that is neither fully democratic or authoritarian, such as electoral authoritarianism, delegative democrazy, and illiberal democracy
totalitarian regime a form of authoritarian regime that aims to control everything about the lives of its subject population, such as in the soviet union and germany under the nazis
theocracy an authoritarian state controlled by religious leaders, or a state with very strict religious restrictions that uses religion as its main mode of legitimization
personalistic dictatorship a form of authoritarianism in which the personality of the dictator it highlighted
illiberal democracy a polity with some democratic features but in which political and civil rights are not all guaranteed or protected.
delegative democracy a hybrid form of regime that is democratic but involves the electorate delegating significant authority to a government
electoral authoritarianism a name applied to situations in which authoritarian regimes nominally compete in elections
competitive authoritarianism a form of govt or regime that allows some political competition but not enough to qualify as fully democratic
collective action action under-taken by individuals and groups to pursue their ends formally or informally coordinated ways, often in pursuit of some common or public good such as expanded civil rights or sustainable use of common resources
legislature assembly or body of reps that have authority to make laws
bicameral legislature 2 chambers, equal or unequal powers
unicameral legislature single chamber
congress form of legislature assoc with presidential system in which there is a separation of powers
parliament a type of legislature assoc w/ systems in which legislators vote on the leadership of the exec branch and formation of the govt
district system an electoral system in which voters select reps from specific geographic constituencies
single member district (SMD) electoral system in which voters choose a candidate and the winner is elected by most votes earned or through winning a runoff vote
first-past-the-post electoral system in which the candidate with most number of votes wins regardless of winning the majority
runoff top candidates after a first round of voting compete in one or more additional rounds of voting until one gets majority
multi-member-district (MMD) electoral system in which district constituencies have more than one representative
proportional representation (PR) system in which voters choose a preferred party and seats are allocated to parties according to the percentage of the vote the party wins
open-list-proportional representation system in which voters choose a candidate but votes are aggregated by political party to determine the allocation of seats across parties
alternative vote system in which voters rank candidates and the votes of low ranking candidates are reallocated until a winner is determined
single transferable vote (STV) electoral system in which voters rank candidates and the winners' surplus votes are reallocated to other low-ranking candidates until slate of reps is chosen
strategic voting voting in a way that doesnt express a voters ideal preference, as to avoid a less desired outcome
indirect election electoral system in which reps are chosen by other elected officials, rather than directly by citizentry
executive-legislative relations the set of relationships between the exec and legislative branches
apportionment the process by which legislative seats are distributed among geographic constituencies
malapportionment apportionment in which voters are unequally represented in a legislature
head of state a person with executive functions that is a country's symbolic representative including elected presidents and unelected monarchs
head of government the top executive official responsible for forming governments and formulating and implementing policies
prime minister a chief executive in a parliamentary system
president chief executive that typically combines the functions of head of state and head of govt, not directly responsible to a legislature
monarch head of state in a monarchy, who usually inherits a position for life and may have either substantial political powers or very limited ceremonial powers
presidentialism a system of govt in which a president serves as chief executive, independent of legislatures
parlimentarism a system of govt in which the head of government is elected by and accountable to a parliament or legislature
vote of no confidence a vote taken by a legislature that expresses a lack of support for the government or executive, which if successful often results in the dissolution of the govt and the calling of new legislative elections
semi-presidential system a mixed or hybrid system combining presidentialism and parliamentarism
coalition a group of two or more political parties that governs by sharing executive power and responsibilities
minimum winning coalition a governing coalition that contains no surplus parties beyond those required to form a government
minimum connected winning coalition all parties in the coalition are "connected" on the political spectrum
minimum size coalition coalition closest to the threshold needed to govern
grand coalition coalition composed of two or more major parties that hold a supermajority of legislative seats and represent the supermajority of the electorate
populism a political approach in which leaders, often heads of government and top executive branch officials, make direct appeals to the people and seek to develop direct political ties with the masses
consociational systems that use formal mechanisms to coordinate different groups sharing access to power
interest group orgs that make demands on behalf of their constituents and members in the political system
civil society the set of organizations in civic life outside the state through which citizens associate and articulate and advance their interests, to include civic associations, interest groups, and volunteer orgs
interest articulation process by which political actors express their needs/wants in a political system, often through interest groups
interest aggregation process by which individuals preferences are brought together to make collective decisions, often through political parties and the party system
elite parties political parties in which membership and scope were largely restricted to a small number of political elites
mass parties parties consisting of large numbers of citizens as members and that undertake massive political mobilization
catch-all parties political parties that are flexible on their ideological positions and aim to attract support from a broad range of interest groups and voters
dominant-party system party system in which a country contains only one large political party that predominates politically, often controlling the legislative and executive branches
single-party system an authoritarian system in which parties besides the single dominant party are banned or disallowed
two-party system a political party system consisting of two significant parties that have a duopoly on opportunities to govern
multi-party system a political party system consisting of more than two significant parties that have opportunities to govern
fragmentation relatively large numbers of relatively small parties
concentration relatively small numbers of relatively large parties
effective number of parties a measure designed to capture the number of meaningful parties in a party system that weighs the number of parties represented by their size
party system institutionalization the degree to which a party system is stable and remains so over time.
pluralism a system of interest group representation in which groups openly compete to influence government decisions and public policy, and in which specific groups do not have official preferential access to decision making
corporatism a system of interest group representation in which certain major groups are officially designated as reps of certain interests, and have a more structured interaction with the govt in power and with the states administration
collective action the pursuit of political or social goals by members of a group
contention pursuit of collective goods largely outside of formal political institutions
formal institutions institutions that are governed by formal rules and typically linked to complex organizations like the state or corporation
social movements ongoing, organized collective action oriented toward a goal of social change
social revolutions revolutions that dramatically change social structures
insurgencies contention with formalized military conflict
civil wars sustained military conflict between domestic actors
terrorism a tactic used by some participants that involves violence directed at non-military targets
everyday resistance efforts to resist or obstruct authority that are not clearly organized over time, such as work stoppages, slowdowns, and sabotage
iron law of oligarchy the idea that collective action always produces new elites
mobilization the engagement of individuals and groups in sustained contention
political revolution revolution to alter political institutions rather than social and economic structures
coup d'etat the use of force or threat of force, typically by the military or coalition involving the military, to impose a non-electoral change of government
subaltern occupying lower rungs in a heirarchical system
individualization the treatment of problems as linked to the individual rather than common issues
collective behavior a paradigm for understanding various forms of contention, popular for part of the 20th century which emphasizedthe irrational social-psychological dynamics of protest
strain theory a theory suggesting that major social change causes social strain or conflict which increases demand for revoltution
Tocqueville effect the observation that changing relative status positions were an important factor in some groups participating in the French revolution
relative deprivation the state of having or feeling that one has less than members of one's reference group
absolute deprivation a condition of being deprived of resources below some given threshold
structuralism the view that social structures, rather than agents or culture, make most of the difference
Created by: sasporn