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sociology chapter 9

chapter 9

the recognized violation of cultural norms deviance
form of deviance, violation of society's formall enacted criminal law crime
deviance calls forth____, which are attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior social control
genetic research seeks possible links between______ & _____ biology & crime
suggests that strong moral standards and positive self-image can keep boys from becoming delinquent recklness & dinitz containment theory
formal response to an individual's alleged violations of law from polive, courts, and prison officials criminal justice system
deviance varies according to_______ cultural norms
people become deviant as ___________. others define them that way.
both norms and the wap people define rule breaking involve________. social power
According to Emile Durkheim devience affirms _______ & ________ cultural values & norms
durkheim says responding to devience clarifies ________ & promotes _________. 1. moral boundaries, 2. social unity.
accoring to durkheim deviance encourages________. social change
whos study brings durkheims to life? kai erickson's classic study of the puritans of massachusetts bay
the strain between our culture's emphasis on wealth and the limited opportunity to get rich giv es rise, especially among the poor, to theft, and sale of drugs, or other street crime merton's strain theory
mertons 4 types of deviance (responses to failure) 1. innovation 2. ritualism, 3. retreatism, 4. rebellion
extened merton's theory, proposing that access to illegimate opportuniries for success is also problematic. As a result of this, three different types of deliquent subcultures may arise cloward & ohlin
cloward & ohlin's 3 types of delinquent subcultures 1. criminal 2. conflict 3. retreatist
suggests that delinquency is most prnounced in lower-class youths because they have the least opportunity to achieve conventional success albert cohen
according to walter miller, deviant subcultures are characterized by : 1. trouble 2. toughness 3. smartness 4. a need for excitement 5. a belief in fate 6. a desire for freedom
idea that deviance and conformity result, not so much from what people do but how others respond labeling theory
passing episodes of norm violation that have little effect on the self primary deviance
when an individual repeatidly violates a norm and beginds to to an a deviant identity secondary deviance
powerfully negative social label that radically changes a persons self concept and social identity operating as a master status stigma
stigma's are often attached in a formal rituals degradation ceremonies
argues that mentally ill is a label we attacg to people who are only different and concules that we should abandon the concept of mental illness entirely thomas szasz
transformation of moral and legal issues into a medial condition medicalization of deviance
his differential association theory suggests that all deviance is learned in groups edwin sutherland
his control theory states that social control depends on imagining the consequences of ones behavior hirschi
hirschi assers that conformity arises from four types of social controls 1. attachment 2. committment 3. involvement 4. belief
suggests that deviant labels are chiefly applied to those who impede the operation of capitalism steven spitzer
crimes comittied by persons of high social position in ther course of their occupations white-collar crime
illegal actiosn of a corportation or people acting on it's behalf corporate crime
business supplying illegal goods or services organized crime
criminal acts carried out against a person or a persons property by ano ffender motivated by racial or other bias hate crimes
2 componenets of crime 1. act itself 2. criminal intent
the criminal justice system must operate within the bounds of the law. due process
serve as the primary point of contact between the population and the criminal justice system police
legal negotiation in which the prosecution reduces a defendant's charge in exchange for a guilty plea plea bargaining
act of moral vengeance by which society subjects an offender to suffering comparable to that caused by the offense retribution
attempt to discourage criminality through punishment deterrence
reforming the offender to prevent subsequent offenses rehabilitation
rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily throuhg incarceration or permanently by execution societl protection
subsequent offenses by people convicted of crimes crimincal recidivism
Created by: kunkle_7807