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Ichthyology Midterm

gregg p.

how old is the earth? ~4.5 billion years
how long ago did life evolve? ~3.5 billion years
how long ago did eukaryotes evolve? ~1.5 to 2 billion years
how long ago did fishes (verts) evolve? ~530 million years
what are the earliest extinct verts? chinese fossils from Cambrian, Conodonts, Ostracoderms, Placoderms, Chondicthyes, Acanthodii, Osteichthyes, Sarcopterygii, Actinopterygi
describe conodonts mostly known for teeth, sister group of jawed fishes (gnathostomes)
describe the early chinese fossils from Cambrian distinct head, probable notochord, myomeres, finfolds
describe Ostracoderms major jawless vertebrate radiation, distinct evolutionary line, bony armor, cartilaginous skeleton, heterocercal tail
characteristics of Ostracoderms (Pteraspidimorphi) "wing shield forms", double nostril group
characteristics of Ostracoderms (Cephalaspidimorphi) "head shield forms", single nostril group
examples for Agnatha Myxinidae (hagfish), Petromyzontidae (lampreys); (oral disks)
what are Agnatha's extant, jawless fishes, eel-like, no paired fins
what is important for diversification? evolution of jaw suspension among vertebrates
what did the second gill arch that was incorporated help with? strength, mobility, gape
example of the remnants of the second gill arch? spiracles; in sharks and rays (respiration)
what did the earliest jaws derive from? the first gill arch (autostyly; = larger and better food could be exploited)
in ostracoderms, what were the gills most likely used for? feeding and respiration
what separates feeding and respiration processes jaw evolution
describe Placoderms first major radiation of jawed fishes, very diverse, mostly bottom dwellers, paired fins, dorsoventrally compressed body
what appeared in the fossil record when we would expect to see ancestors of modern fishes? placoderms
describe Chondricthyes include elasmobranchs (sharks/rays) and holocephalans (chimaeras), poor fossil record, cartilaginous skeleton, teeth not fused to jaw, unsegmented fin rays (ceratotrichia), spiral valve intestine, claspers on pelvic fins of males for internal fert.
what do you call unsegmented fin rays ceratotrichia
what are the ancestors of Chondrichthyes Cladoselache (marine), Exanocanthus (freshwater), and hybodont sharks
what are the extant chondrichthyan characteristics simple cranium, upper jaw NOT fused to cranium, conveyer belt-like teeth, 4-7 gill openings (usually 5), vertebral column (notochord & vertebrae), pectoral and pelvic fins, males with modified anal fins (claspers), placoid scales (dermal denticles)
what are the modified anal fins in chondrichthyans called claspers
what are the extant chondrichthyan adaptations buoyancy, respiration, external covering, feeding, movement, sensory system, osmoregulation
describe the sensory system in hammerheads mobility, increased flexibility, widely spaced sensory organs, ampullae used like metal detector, not more sensitive but more area, navigational uses
what is "k-selected" in chondrichthyan reproduction small numbers of large young; long-loved; late ages at maturity
describe reproduction in Chondrichthyans "k-selected", oviparity
talk about oviparity in chondrichthyan reproduction all skates and chimaeras, some sharks (cat sharks); egg laying
talk about viviparity in chondrichtyan reproduction "live bearing", many forms; aplacental (ovoviviparity), uterine, cannibal, placental, 57% of chondrichthyans, evolutionary advantades (protection and delivery of brood in nursey areas)
describe Acanthodii "spiny sharks", specialized forms, commonly studied in vert. evolution, cited in "fin-fold theory" of the origin of paired fins and limbs
describe Osteichthyes "bony fishes", characterized by the presence of lungs, bone, bony scales, and soft fin rays (lepidotrichia) --> modern fishes
describe Sarcopterygii "lobe-finned fishes", modern forms specialized, sister group to tetrapods (including humans) (ex: coelacanth, lungfish) --> modern fishes
what are close relatives of tetrapods lobe-finned fishes (living and fossil)
in Coelacanths, coel = ? "hollow"
in Coelacanths, acanth = ? "spine"
how can you compare lobe-finned and ray-finned fishes? radius and ulna placement in pectoral fins
describe Dipnoi (lungfishes) 3 families on 3 continents; eel-like bodies, paired gills and lungs, lungs to supplement gills when stressed
describe Actinopterygii "ray-finned fishes"; contains most of the bony fish species that exist today
what are the evolutionary changes in Actinopterygii produced in the diverse forms that we see today scales, fins, swimbladder, jaws, tail
describe Polypteriformes (birchirs) resemble lobe-finned fishes, maxillary (upper jaw) fused to skull, spiracles, heavy ganoid scales, spiral valve intestine, paired lungs (normally use gills), heterocercal tail
what does Diadromy mean? migrating between 2 environments as part of life cycle
in Diadromy, describe Catadromy adults live in freshwater, spawn in marine waters (American eel)
in Diadromy, describe Anadromy adults live in marine waters, spawn in freshwaters (salmon, some lampreys, some trout)
what are the exceptions and variations to Diadromy Ontogenetic habitat changes mediated by hormones, some sawfish live in marine waters as adults and give birth in estuaries, Diadromous species can give rise to non-migratory fomes
why are sturgeon and paddlefish close to extinction? human made dams
what is distinct about Semionotiformes (gars) non-overlapping ganoid scales, snout with sharp teeth, unique opisthocoelous vertebrae, dorsal and anal fins near tail, large vascularized vertebrae
what is distinct about Amiiformes (bowfin) "mud fish", cycloid scales,amphicoelous vertebrae, large swimbladder used as lung, adults are piscivorous, males build nest to guard embryos and young
in Actinopterygii, describe Teleostei main line of fish evolution, 24000 species, successful because of adaptations, unique respiration, feeding, buoyancy, swimming styles, reproduction, homocercal tails
what does teleostei mean "end bone"
in Elopomorpha (eels and tarpons) what unites this group? Leptocephalus larva
what are important food fishes for upper trophic levels and a popular bait fish in Florida Clupeomorpha (herrings)
what are Unculi in Ostariohysi small unicellular projections for scraping or clinging
what is Weberian apparatus chain of bones that connects the swimbladder to the inner ear; modified portions for the first 4-5 vertrebrae
describe Salmondoidei (Salmonidae) 70 species, support major sport and commercial fisheries, aqua cultured (hatcheries), nonanadromous forms evolve when populations become trapped above new barriers, physiologically adapted for geologically and climatically unstable areas
what are termed "new teleosts" Neoteostei (complec teleost systematics)
how are Cyclosquamata's united? unique structure of the gill arches
what is unique about Lophiiformes (anglarfishes)? illicium (fishing pole) and esca (lure)
where are the illicium and esca in anglar fishes derived from first ray of spinous dorsal fin
what is the most diverse group of fishes (~13,500 spp) Acanthopterygii
what are some of the uniting characteristics of Acanthopterygii mouth, pharyngeal jaws, paired fins (increased efficiency of feeding and movement)
what do Percomorphas have specializations for predator avoidance (fin spines increase the effective diameter of body), feeding (hovering, retinal cone patterns), social behavior (esp. reproduction) (territoriality)
define Elasmobranch any of a class of fishes with skeletons of cartilage and with platelike girlls
in Elasmobranch, elasmos = ? "metal plate"
in Elasmobranach, branchia = ? "gill"
what are some examples of Elasmobranch? sharks, rays, skates, chimeras
in sampling methods, what are some of the things that we need to consider? time spent collecting data, many techniques, reasons to collect data, efficiency, goals of research should be defined apriori, results must be analyzed and synthesized, results presented, consider details based on audience, publish research
what are the methods of sampling identify a need and define a goal, choose objectives, devise strategies (gear selection), consider logistics, timetable, costs
what are the passive capture techniques entanglement and entrapment
examples of entaglement gills nets, trammel nets
examples of entrapment hoop nets, fyke nets, various traps
what are the active capture techniques sieving the water, mesh panes of bag (seines, trawls, dredges), modern techniques for commercial fisheries and scientific sampling, quantify # fish per sampled volume of area, electrofishing
what are some other sampling techniques toxicants, hydroacoustics, underwater video
what are the primary concerns for fishes buoyancy and temperature
in buoyancy and thermal regulation, what are morphologically similar gas-secreting structure of swimbladders (derived teleosts) and structure of head-exhcnage organs (large, active oceanic fish)
what do both buoyancy and thermal regulation involve exchanges of gas or head across blood-vessel walls in a countercurrent manner*
what are the strategies of buoyancy low density compounds, lift generating surfaces, reduction of heavy tissues, swimbladders (gas bladder)
what is the major contributor to teleost diversity swimbladders (gas bladders)
describe the swimbladder allow precise control of buoyancy, volume of gas regulated with relative ease
what are the 2 major types of swimbladders Physostomus and Physoclistous
describe Physostomus pneumatic duct (gut connection), ancestral, surface dwelling species, must gulp air and force it into swimbladder
describe Physoclistous no gut connection, derived species, allows new niches, "closed" swimbladder
in a physoclistous swimbladder, what is the resorptive area (oval gland) used for? deflation
in a physoclistous swimbladder, what is the rete mirabile and gas gland used for ? inflation
who was the first to make a book about fish called "fishes of greece" Aristotle
who was the first to consistently apply binomial nonmenclature? Carl Linnaeus
who was the father of ichthyology Peter Artedi
who used homology of structure to create natural lineages? Georges Cuvier
Created by: KAzetapi