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PHS Test 1 Units 1&2

Ancient Times (4000-3000BC) Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits and demons
Ancient Egyptians (3000-300BC) Earliest people to maintain health records
Ancient Egyptians (3000-300BC) Mummified corpses showed signs of arthritis, kidney stones and arteriosclerosis
Ancient Chinese (1200BC-220AD) Treat whole body by cursing spirits and nourishing the body; recorded herbal medications; used acupuncture to treat pain
Ancient Greeks Illness was result of natural causes; believed in disease prevention; studied effects of disease and the human body
Hippocrates "Father of Medicine"
Hippocrates Organized disease by signs and symptoms
Hippocrates Created high standards of ethics used by physicians (Hippocratic Oath)
Sign Objective patient observation
Symptom Subjective patient observation
Sign Fever
Symptom Pain
Sign Swollen ankle
Symptom Nausea
Ancient Romans Established hospitals (for injured soldiers)
Ancient Romans Developed public sanitation systems (aqueducts for clean water, sewers for waste)
Dark Ages (400-800 AD) Emphasis on saving soul and study of medicine prohibited
Middle Ages (800-1400 AD) Bubonic plague killed 75% of population in Europe and Asia
Arab physician Rhazes Began using animal gut for suture material
Renaissance (1350-1650AD) The rebirth of science & medicine; dissection of the human body began
Leonardo DaVinci Studied corpses and drew the human body more realistically
Printing Press Allowed knowledge to be spread
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope
Ambroise Pare Father of modern Surgery
William Harvey Described circulation of blood to/from the heart
Ambroise Pare Used ligatures to bind arteries to stop bleeding
Gabriel Fahrenheit Invented 1st mercury thermometer
Benjamin Franklin Invented bifocals
Benjamin Franklin 1Discovered colds could be passed from person to person
Edward Jenner Developed smallpox vaccination
Rene Laennec Invented the stethoscope
Florence Nightingale Founder of modern nursing
Florence Nightingale Start nursing schools
Robert Koch Father of microbiology; developed way to grow bacteria on culture plates
Ignaz Semmelweiss Encouraged hand-washing
Gregory Mendel Established principles of heredity (traits can be passed from parents to children)
Louis Pasteur Discovered that microorganisms cause disease and how to kill them (pasteurization of milk)
Wilhelm Roentgen Discovered x-rays
Joseph Lister First doctor to use antiseptic during surgery
Sigmund Freud Formed the basis for psychiatry and psychology
Clara Barton Founded the American Red Cross
Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin
Jonas Salk Discovered polio vaccination
Crick and Watson Described DNA structure
Cost containment Control costs while achieving maximum benefits
Telemedicine Using video, audio and computer systems to provide medical services
Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) Classifying patients with certain disease in one payment group
DRG Diagnostic Related Group
Hopsital Provides INPATIENT care.
Hospitals are classified by funding; list the four funding types. 1) Proprietary/for profit 2) nonprofit 3) government 4) Religious
Hospitals are classified by services; list the two service types. 1) General 2) Specialty
Long-term healthcare facility Provides care for elderly, people with physical or mental disabilities and people with chronic or long-term illness.
Nursing home For live-in patients who no longer can care for themselves
Emergency Care Provide special care for accidents or sudden illness (risk of losing life, limb or eye sight)
Medical Offices Provide diagnosis, treatment, examination, basic laboratory testing & minor surgery; usually operated by a group of group of physicans
Dental Offices Provide dental exams, cleaning and treatments for a variety of disorders
Clinics Provide a variety of OUTPATIENT services
Optical Centers Provide vision exams; prescribe eye glasses or contact lenses
Medical Labs where diagnostic test are processed (usually blood or urine specimens)
Dental Labs where implants, dentures and other corrective devices for the mouth are made
Home Health Care Provide care to patients who are terminally ill
Palliative Care Comfort care for the terminally ill
Mental Health Provide care of patients who have mental illness and disorders
List 4 types of Mental Health Services 1) Counseling 2) Psychiatric 3) Chemical abuse 4) Phsycial abuse
Genetic Counseling Centers Provide testing & counseling to individuals or couples who are pregnant or considering pregnancy
Rehabilitation Provide services to help patients with physical or mental disabilities develop maximum ability for self-care
List 3 examples of rehabilitative therapy 1) Physical therapy 2) Occupational therapy 3) Speech therapy
Industrial Health Centers Onsite clinic within a large industry or employer that provides basic exams, accident/illness prevention and wellness programs
School Health Services Provide health screenings, health education, and emergency care to students and staff, along with recommendations for a safe/sanitary school environment
Local Health Departments provide immunizations, inspections for health and sanitation, statistics and records, health education or clinics
Associate's Degree awarded by vocational/technical school or community college; requires completion of prescribed two-year course of study
Bachelor's Degree Awarded by college or university; requires completion of prescribed course of study that usually lasts for four or more years
Master's Degree Awarded by a college or university; requires completion of one ore more years beyond a bachelor's degree
Doctorate Degree Awarded by college or university; requires completion of two or more years beyond a bachelor's or master's degree; some require four to six years of additional study
Purpose of certification, Registration & Licensure to ensure skill and competency of healthcare workers and to protect patients
Certification issued if person fulfills requirements of education and performance and meets standards and qualifications established (not REQUIRED to work in that career field)
Registration REQUIRED of some careers; professional/state agencies administer examinations and maintain a current list (the "registry") of qualified individuals
Licensure Authorizes individuals to work in an occupation; Person required to 1) complete approved education program, 2) pass a STATE board exam, and 3) Maintain certain standards (CEC)
Aide/Assistant Up to one year of training (classroom and on-the-job training); examples: Dental assistant, nursing aide
Purpose of an Accrediting Agency is? Ensures that a program of study meets established quality competency standards
Purpose of Continuing Education Credits (CEC)is? Required to renew licenses, and maintain registration/certificaiton
Technician Associate's degree, or on-the-job training; examples: dental laboratory technician, surgical technician
Technologist 3-4 years of college (bachelor's degree), plus work experience; examples: Occupational Therapist, Respiratory Therapist
Professional 4 years of college (bachelor's) and an advanced degree; examples: dentist, physician, nurse
Therapeutic Services Cluster/Pathway Maintain or change the health status of the patient over time; examples: nurse, physician, physical therapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist
Diagnostic Services Cluster/Pathway Create a picture of patient health at a single point and time; examples: Electroencephalographic technologist, medical laboratory technician, radiologic technician
Health Informatics Cluster/Pathway Provide functions that support and document patient care; examples: admitting clerk, epidemiologist, medical librarian
Support Services Cluster/Pathway Provide a therapeutic environment for the delivery of health care; examples: central supply worker, housekeeper
Biotechnology Research & Development Cluster/Pathway (Environmental) uses scientific and technical advancements to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic abilities in health care; examples: biomedical engineer, forensic scientist
Purpose of the National Health Care Skill Standards (NHCSS) is Developed to indicate knowledge and skills expected of health care workers in a specific cluster/pathway
Preventing Illness Most effective cost containment strategy; prevent illnesses from occurring.
Outpatient Services Cost containment strategy; provide as much patient care in the clinics (outpatients) vs. in hospitals (inpatients) that spend a night)
Mass/Bulk Purchasing Cost containment strategy that purchases things in large quantity to save money
Combination of services Cost containment strategy that saves money by offering similar services in on location (eg: pharmacy, radiology or labs)
Athletic Trainer Prevent, recognize, manage, & rehabilitate injuries that result from physical activity
Massage Therapist Apply manual techniques to manipulate soft tissue
Occupational Therapist Work with people who are having difficulty participating in their daily living and working environments due to mental, physical, developmental or emotional disabilities
Physical Therapist Work with patients to help them regain their physical strength
Recreational Therapist Provide activities and recreational opportunities to people with disabilities and illnesses
Respiratory Therapist Treat patients who have difficulty breathing because of heart-lung problems
Speech Language Pathologist Evaluate and treat patients with speech, hearing, language and swallowing problems
Audiologist Help people with hearing and balance disorders.
Chiropractic Care Complementary medicine that focuses on mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal systems
Phlembotomist Draw blood samples by puncture of the veins
Dental Hygienist clean teeth, apply fluorides and sealants to teeth and conduct X-rays
Oral Surgeon Surgery of the mouth and jaw
Orthodontics correction of teeth placement and facial structures
Periodontics Treat the gums and supporting structures
Health Information Administrator Plan, develop, organize, manage and direct the medical information system for healthcare facilities
Social Worker Work with individual or groups with problems such as poverty, illness, substance abuse or child, spouse or elder abuse.
Certified Nurses Aide (CNA) Basic nursing skills; earned with 15 -22 weeks of training and are certified.
Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) help care for ill or injured people and perform health maintenance duties under the direction of physicians, dentists and registered nurses; 1 year of training with a certification
Registered Nurse (RN) observe patients to assess symptoms, reactions to treatment, and progress. Manage CNAs and LVNs; must have an associates or bachelors and be certified.
Pharmacist dispense medications prescribed by physicians, dentists, and other authorized medical practitioners
Electrocardiographic (EKG) Technician operate noninvasive equipment which prints graphic tracings of electrical impulses transmitted by the heart
What career pathway/cluster is a Healthcare Administrator? Health Informatics
What pathway/cluster is an Electrocardiographic (EKG) technician? Diagnostic
Optometrist Vision care - exam, diagnosis, treat and manage eye diseases.
Created by: vorachekt