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MT Test 1 Review

MT Test 1 Review (Ch 1-3)

-algia pain and suffering
dys- difficult, painful or bad
-ectomy surgical removal
hyper- over, above or increased
hypo- below, under or decreased
-itis inflammation
-osis a disease or abnormal condition
-otomy a surgical incision
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhage/-rrhagia sudden abnormal or excessive flow
-rrhaphy to suture or stitch
-rrhexis rupture
-sclerosis abnormal hardening
arteri/o artery
arthr/o joint
gastr/o stomach
-malacia abnormal softening
-megaly large or enlargement
myel/o spinal cord or bone marrow
my/o muscle
-necrosis tissue death
neur/o nerve
-ology study of
-pathy disease
-stenosis abnormal narrowing
-ostomy creation of an artificial opening to the body surface
diff Dx differential diagnosis
Inflam Inflammation
Aden/o gland
Anter/o front or before
Caud/o tail or lower part of the body
Carcin/o cancerous
Cephal/o head
Chondr/o cartilage
Hist/o tissue
Path/o (-pathy) disease
Poster/o back or toward the back
Ventr/o belly side of the body
-oma tumor
-plasia formation
A- without
Ana- excessive
Epi- above
Genetic Disorders pathologic conditions caused by absent or defective genes
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) condition in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with abnormally thick mucus
Hemophilia (hemo) bleeding disorder
Huntington’s Disease condition characterized by nerve degeneration
Muscular Dystrophy (MD) condition characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
Phenylketonuria (PKU) condition characterized by a missing essential digestive enzyme that can lead to severe mental retardation if left undectected/untreated
Tay-Sachs Disease fatal condition in which harmful quantities of fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain
Aplasia the defective development or congenital absence of an organ/tissue
Hypoplasia incomplete development of an organ/tissue
Anaplasia change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other
Dysplasia abnormal development of tissues/cells
Hyperplasia abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in a tissue
Hypertrophy general increase in the bulk of a body part/organ due to an increase in size of cells in the tissues
Endemic ongoing presence of a disease within a population (Ex: the common cold)
Epidemic sudden/widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area (Ex: measles)
Pandemic outbreak of disease occurring over a large geographic area or worldwide (Ex: AIDS)
Functional disease symptoms for which no physiological/anatomical cause can be identified (Ex: irritable bowel syndrome)
Iatrogenic illness unfavorable response to medical treatment (Ex: side effects from medication)
Idiopathic disease illness without known cause (Ex: Crohn’s disease)
Infectious disease caused by living pathogenic organisms (Ex: flu)
Nosocomial Infection infection acquired in a hospital or clinical setting
Organic Disirder caused by detectable physical changes in the body (Ex: Diabetes)
Congenital Disorder abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth
-ologist specialist
Umbilic/o umbilicus (belly button)
CD communicable disease
P physiology or posterior
Midsagittal Plane divides body along the midline into right and left
Frontal Plane divides body into anterior and posterior
Transverse Plane divides body into superior and inferior
Histologist specialist in the structure and composition of tissues
Pathologist specialist in the analysis of tissue samples to establish a diagnosis
CF Cystic Fibrosis
PKU Phenylketonuria
Ankyl/o crooked, stiff, bent
Burs/o bursa (sac of fluid near the joint)
Cost/o rib
Kyph/o hump
Lord/o swayback curve/bent backward
Oste/o bone
Por/o pore (small opening)
Scoli/o curved
Spondyl/o vertebrae (backbone)
Synovi/o; Synov/o synovial membrane (membrane that lubricates the joints)
-lysis loosening / setting free (therapeutic) or breaking down/destruction (diseased condition)
Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) used to treat certain types of cancers (leukemia
Allogenic BMT uses healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor
Autologous BMT the patient receives his own marrow cells that have been previously harvested
Hallux valgus abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)
Luxation total dislocation of a bone from its joint
Subluxation partial displacement of a bone from its joint
Rheumatoid Arthritis joint inflammation caused by the body’s immune system attacking its own joint tissues
Osteoarthritis (OA) bone/joint inflammation caused by “wear-and-tear” of cartilage at the joints
Spondylosis “wear-and-tear” of the cartilage of the vertebrae
Lumbago pain in the lumbar region of the spine (may be caused by anything)
Spina Bifida congenital defect where the spinal canal fails to close around the spinal cord
Kyphosis abnormal increase of the outward curvature of the spine (humpback)
Lordosis abnormal increase of the forward curvature (swayback)
Scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (sideways)
Comminuted fracture (Fx) bone is splintered/crushed into pieces
Greenstick fracture (Fx) bone is bent/partially broken (usually in children)
Open fracture (Fx) bone is broken out to the surface of the skin
Spiral fracture (Fx) bone is broken by a twisting motion (usually in sports injuries)
Stress fracture (Fx) small crack in the bone from overuse or chronic/excessive impact
Arthrodesis surgical fixation (fusion) of a joint (to stiffen the joint due to severe deformities)
Arthrolysis surgical loosening of a (stiffened) joint
Arthroplasty surgical repair of a joint (may also be an artificial joint replacement)
Bursectomy surgical removal of bursa
Chondroplasty surgical repair of (damaged) cartilage
Synovectomy surgical removal of synovial membrane from a joint
Ostectomy surgical removal of bone
Osteoplasty surgical repair of bone/bones
Osteorrhaphy surgical suturing (wiring together) of bones
Osteotomy surgical incision or sectioning of bone
Bursitis inflammation of a bursa
Chondromalacia abnormal softening of cartilage
Chondroma benign tumor in cartilage
Costochondritis inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
Synovitis inflammation of the synovial membrane
Ostealgia bone pain
Osteitis inflammation of bone
Osteomalacia abnormal softening of bones in adults (caused by Vitamin D deficiency)
Osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow
Osteonecrosis death of bone tissue (due to insufficient blood supply)
Myeloma cancer found in bone marrow
Osteochondroma benign bony projection covered with cartilage
Osteoporosis (OP) abnormal condition of porous bone (loss of bone density)
Chiropractor specializes in spinal manipulation to treat various disorders
Orthopedic surgeon specializes in diseases/disorders involving the bones
Osteopath uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to spinal manipulation
Arthrosclerosis abnormal hardening of a joint
Ankylosis stiff; abnormal condition (loss of joint mobility)
Myeloma tumor found in bone marrow
Osteochondroma benign tumor of bone and cartilage (cartilage-capped bony growth)
BMT Bone Marrow Transplant
Fx Fracture
OA Osteoarthritis
OP Osteoporosis
Brady- slow
Tachy- fast
-cele hernia
-desis bind/tie together; surgical suturing
-emia blood condition
-ia condition
-ic pertaining to
-al pertaining to
CFS Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
prog prognosis
A anterior
ADL Activities of Daily Living
RT Related To
caudal towards the lower part of the body
cephalic towards the head
anterior situated in the front (opposite of posterior)
posterior situated in the back (opposite of anterior)
dorsal refers to the back of the organ or body
ventral refers to the front, or belly side, of the organ or body
cranial cavity surrounds and protects the brain
spinal cavity surrounds and protects the spinal cord
thoracic cavity surrounds and protects the heart and lungs
abdominal cavity contains primarily the major organs of digestion
pelvic cavity contains primarily the organs of teh reproductive and excretory systems
rt & lt hypochondriac region on right and left side of body and covered by the ribs
rt & lt lumbar region located on the left and right sides near teh inward curve of the spine. The part between ribs and pelvis.
rt & lt iliac region right and left sides over the hip bones
epigastric region above the stomach
umbilical center; middle of the stomach (belly button)
hypogastric region below the stomach
sign objective evidence of a disease
symptom patient reported (subjective) evidence of diease
laceration torn/jagged wound
lesion change of the tissues due to disease or injury
palpation examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size and location of certain body parts
palpitation pounding or racing of the heart
diagnosis (Dx) the identification of disease
prognosis (prog) the prediction or probable course/outcome of a disease
infection invasion of the body by pathogens
inflammation (inflam) localized response to an injury or destruction of tissues
chronic illness illness that has a long duration and rarely cured
acute illness illness that has a quick onset and/or lasts for a short duration
remission temporary/partial or complete disappearance of the symptoms of disease without achieving a cure
Created by: vorachekt