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special stains

carbohydrate & amyloid

Carbohydrates Group I contain glucose-glycogen cellulose starch N-acetyl-glucosamine-chitin neutral polysaccharides nonionic homoglycans (+) PAS (-) alcian blue, colloidal iron, mucicarmine
Carbohydrate Group II Acid mucopolysaccharides (anionic heteroglycans) all are acidic (-) pas (+) ALCIAN BLUE, COLLOIDAL IRON, MUCICARMINE
Carbohydrates Group III Glycoproteins mucins, mucoid, mucoprotein, mucosubstances mostly epithelial mucins some may occur in connective tissue some/most PAS (+)
Carbohydrates Group IV glycolipids cerebrosides-fatty residue bound to carbohydrate structure phosphatides- PAS positive, non carb containing lipids
PAS demonstrates polysaccharides, neutral mucosubstances, & basement membranes most common reactive group is 1 &2 periodic acid oxidizes to aldehydes basic fuchsin is treated w/ sulfurous acid to make Schiff reagent metabisulfate removes excess schiff
PAS w/ diastase demonstrates glycogen
Best Carmine demonstrates glycogen
Mayer Mucicarmine demonstrates "epithelial" mucin stains carboxylated and sulfated mucins does not stain neutral mucosubstances combine with alcian blue-PAS to establish presence or absence of mucin more certainly
Mayer Mucicarmine Mucin & Cryptococcus.........ROSE Nuclie....................................BLACK Other tissue..........................BLUE OR YELLOW
Alcian Blue pH 2.5 demonstrates acid mucopolysaccharides acetic acid
Alcian Blue pH 1.0 demonstrates sulfated mucosubstances hydrochloric acid
Alcian Blue w/ Hyaluronidase differentiate between epithelial and connective mucins
Alcian Blue- PAS- Hematoxylin stains acid mucosubstances and neutral polysaccharides
Alcian Blue- PAS- Hematoxylin acid mucosubstances.......BLUE neutral polysaccharides......MAGENTA substances stained with both.....PURPLE
Muller- Mowry Colloidal Iron demonstrates carboxylated & sulfated mucopolysaccharides & glycoproteins
Amyloid 1-2% carbohydrate chondroitin, heparin, & dermatan sulfates
Amyloidosis amorphous eosinphilic extracellular deposit that gradually replaces cellular elements of vital organs
Primary Amyloid happens spontaneously usually in heart, muscle, skin, and tongue
Secondary Amyloid comes from predisposing disease commonly found in kidney, liver, spleen, and adrenal glands
Myeloma-associated Amyloid diseases of immune system
Tumor Associated Amyloid associated with many tumors
Alkaline Congo Red Method demonstrates amyloid tissue cut at 8-10 microns examined with polarized light Harris hematoxyline, alkaline salt solution, congo red
Alkaline Congo Red Method Amyloid...............DEEP PINK Elastic tissue........PALE PINK Nuclei...................BLUE
Crystal Violet used for rapid screening of amyloid amyloid with appear purplish violet and other tissue will be blue
Thioflavin T Fluorescent Method used to demonstrate amyloid but is not as specific as congo red amyloid with fluoresce to yellow to yellow-green.
Created by: burkan2