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The Enlightenment

Social Studies OGT Vocabulary

The Enlightenment a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such as Locke, and Newton, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.
Natural Rights Rights that people supposedly have under natural law.
Social Contract an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theorists who used this concept include Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
John Locke Natural Rights (also important to know -> his ideas of a natural right to ‘life, liberty, and property” influenced Thomas Jefferson when he wrote the Declaration of Independence)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau his main contribution to the Enlightenment was his ideas about Social Contract theory
Consent of the Governed the authority of a government should depend on the consent of the people
Republic a state/country in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, and which has an elected or nominated president instead of a monarch.
Montesquieu his main contribution to the Enlightenment was his idea of Checks and Balances
Direct Democracy a form of democracy in which the people all decide and vote on all policy initiatives
Representative Democracy a form of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Democracy a general system of government in which the whole population or all the eligible members of a state/country have a voice in government, typically through elected representatives.
Tabula Rasa an Enlightenment concept that means "a clean slate", which is an absence of preconceived ideas or predetermined goals
State of Nature a concept in moral and political philosophy that was often used by Enlightenment thinkers, that means the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies and governments came into existence.
Majority Rule the principle that the greater number should exercise greater power.
Liberty the power or scope to act as one pleases. It is basically another way to say “freedom”
Separation of Powers an act of giving the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
Checks and Balances counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, in order to help make sure that no one individual or group becomes too powerful
Created by: annabelcoca