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science test 1/16 midterm 2015

What is Science? knowledge gained through observation and experimentation
What are the three main categories? biological science, physical science, and earth science
Can three main categories be combined? yes
What is scientific? observable, measurable, predictable events
What is non-scientific? cannot be measured, observed, or predicted
What is pure science? searching for scientific knowledge
What is technology? application of science
What is the scientific law? does not explain why or how, tells you what will happen
What is scientific theory? explains why or how/ been tested and proven many times
What are scientific models? represents an object / event so it can be studied for the real object
What is quantitative? numbers / measurable
What is qualitative? description / words/ observed
What is scientific principle? based on scientific laws
What is observation? observing something carefully to get info
What is bias? scientist expects will change depending on the view of the results
What is inference? conclusion based on evidence / observation (reasoning)
What is fact? truth known by observation / experience
What is scientific method? series of logical steps in order to solve a probelm
What is control? standards which tests are compared too
What is control group? factors kept the same
What is experimental group? same factor being tested again ( but same is control group )
What is variable? factors that do not change
What is a testable question? measure results, answered by investigation, not answered with "yes or no", does not ask to perform
What is the dependent variable? the thing being tested
What is the independent variable? a thing that is changed
What is hypothesis? a tentative statement that is possible explanation to the same phenomenon
How do you write a formal hypothesis? If DV is related to the IV then changes in the IV will result in changes in the DV
What is extrapolate? extended beyond graph
What is interpolate? predicted date between 2 pts
What is an anomalous pt? random point
What is line graph? straight line
What is a bar graph? compare whole number / not used for rate of change
What is a circle graph? described part of the whole / 100%
What is a histogram? looks like bar graph / ranges of data
What is title? statement of what you are testing ( IV and DV )
What is an abstract? brief summary ( purpose, techniques, results )
What is the purpose? why the experiment happened / testable question
What is the background? info to understand / tells why
What is the hypothesis? "If....Then..." (IV and DV)
What are the materials? list of things of needed
What is the procedure? steps to perform experiment
What is the observations? description of what observed/ Qualitative data
What is data? measurable observations / Quatitative data
What is analysis of data? graphs / drawing of data
What is the discussion? hypothesis was supported, sources of error, why results occurred, things you can improve
What is the literature cited? identity all sources of data
What is precision? reproducible, repeatability, how close the measurement
What is accuracy? how close the measurement is to the true value
How do you add SF? count least amt of decimal places
How to subtract SF? count the least amt of SF
How do you multiply SF? multiply coefficients, write correct amt of SF, add exponents ( if wrong SF or scientific notation, move to the left add, move to the right to subtract )
How do you divide SF? divide coefficients, write in correct SF, subtract exponents, write proper scientific notation
What is Chemistry? Matter and how it changes
What is Mass? Measurement amount of matter
What is Matter? Anything with mass/occupies space
What is an Element? Substance made up of one kind of atom
What is an Atom? Smallest particle that has properties of an element
What is a Compound? Substance made of an atom more than one element chemically bound together in fixed composition/proportion
What is Energy? Ability to change and move matter
What is Potential Energy Stored energy due to its position
What is the Kinetic Theory? 1) All matter is made of up atoms and molecules act like they are tiny particles 2) Tiny particles are in constant motion 3) Small temperature more massive heavier particles move slower and than less massive particles
What is Activation Energy? The energy needed to start a reaction
What are the Laws of Thermodynamics? First Law--energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another. Second Law--no energy exchange is 100% efficient
What is the Conservation of Energy? Energy cannot be created or destroyed
What is the Conservation of Mass? Mass cannot be created or destroyed
What is a solid? Rigid structure, definite shape.
What is a liquid? In more motion flow and easily slide, particles, definite volume. Takes shape into a container.
What is a gas? Particles are far apart. No definite volume. No specific shape.
What is Viscocity? The resistance of fluid to flow.
What is Plasma? Fast moving electrons and irons. Common in the universe, but not common in the earth.
What is Endothermic? gaining energy
What is Exothermic? loosing energy
What is melting? Solid ---- into a liquid
What is melting? Solid ---- into a liquid
What is a evaporation? Liquid -- into a gas
What is sublimation? Solid -- into a gas
What is freezing? Liquid -- into a solid
What is condensation? Gas --- into a liquid
What is deposition? Gas ---- into a solid
What is a physical property? Observe / measured without changes the substance
What is physical changes? Change in the physical form or properties of a substance without a change in chemical composition
What is chemical properties? Ability of how a substance changes into a new one.
What is chemical change? Change where new substance is formed with a different properties.
What is intensive property? Not affected by size of sample
What is extensive property? Dependent on size of sample.
What is a reactants? Substances that undergo a chemical change
What is a Product? Formed as a result of a chemical change.
What is Photosynthesis? 6CO2 + 6H20 + Sunlight ==> C6H12O6 +6O2
What is Cellular Respiration? C6H1206 + 6O2 ==> 6H20 + 6C02 + Energy
What is density? M/V, Physical and Intensive Property, low density="light" or "float", high density "heavy" or "sink"
What is a metal? Good conductors of heat and electricity
What is a non-metal? Poor conductors of heat and electricity
What is metalloid? Can be both/intermediate conductors/electricity
What is Valence Shell? Outer orbital
What is nucleus? Central part of the atom/subatomic (protons and neutrons)
What is proton? Charge: positive mass: 1.673 x 10 to -27 kilograms properties: Identity of an atom
What is neutron? Mass: 1.675 x 10 to -27 kilograms properties: Radiological properties and isotope form
What is Electron? Charge: - Mass: 9.109 x 10 to -31 kilograms properties: chemical reactivity
What is Atomic Number? What is Z, number of protons.
What is a Mass Number? A, neutrons of an atom
What is a Isotope? Items of the same element but with different number of neutrons.
What is a Radiation? Energy emitted from a substance.
What is Ionizing Radiation? Capable of producing of ions by removing electrons of an atom.
What is Non-Ionizing Radiation? Ex: Microwaves, radiowaves, television, light
What is Radioisotopes? Unstable isotope
What is Radioactive Decay? Particles emitted from the nucleus and change the atom to a new element/new isotope of same element
How was radiation discovered? Henri Becqueral - French scientist first to discover radioactive materials in 1896. Pierr and Marie Curie worked with uranium ore and pure uranium. Also discovered radium and polonium.
What is a half life? Time required for amount of radioactive materials to decrease by one half.
What is alpha particle? Most massive, charge =+2, made of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, same nucleus of helium
What is beta particle? Fast moving electrons charge: -1, neutrons, nucleus splits into proton and neutron
What is a gamma ray? not a particle, no mass, form of energy (eletromagnetic), more energy than light or x-rays, does not altar particles of nucleus, travels far neeeds 60 cm of Al or 7 cm of lead to stop, because they have energy they can ionize other atoms
What are dangers of radioiostopes? can cause cancer and DNA damage
what is radiation dose? amount of ionizing radiation that observed by your body
What is background radiation? radiation from cosmic rays and from radioactivity
What are the uses of radioisotopes? sterilize food, medical detection of diseases and treatment of cancer, traces of research, traces of water, smoke detectors, archeological dating of materials, density gauge in industry to measures thickness where contact gauges cannot be used, nuclearpow
Who is quantum concept? Opposite of light, energy not continuous, but small bundles as wave and particle nature, individual unit is known as a photon.
Facts about energy levels Electrons will have a "low" (ground) and "excited" state. Electrons will go between ground and excited states. When they go down to the ground state, they emit the energy as a photon of light energy.
What are spectral lines? energy emitted is quantized not continuous spectrum, each element produces a unique set of spectral lines.
What are orbitals? Three dimensional regions of space. Orbits and Orbitals are different. Orbits are specific paths.
What is the uncertainty principle? Currently impossible to know the position, location, and momentum of an electron.
What is a Valence Shell? Outermost of an atom.
What is a Valence Electron? Electrons in the outermost cell.
What is a Period Relationship of Electron Shell? Row in the periodic table is equal to a new electron shell.
What is a Series Relationship of Electron Shell? Column in the periodic table has same number of valence electrons.
What is the Rule of Octect? How the eight electrons in the valence shell.
What is the Number of Electrons in the First Four Shells? First Shell: 2 Second Shell: 8 Third Shell: 18 Fourth Shell: 32
What is Bohr Diagram? Determines which period your element is in.
What is the Lewis Dot Diagram? Displays the Valence Electrons only.
What is a Subshell and Sublevel Order? Electrons occupy energy sublevels within each energy level, the order of the sublevel filling is arranged according to increasing energy. The sublevels are: S, P, D, F
What is the Maximum Electron Amount Per Sublevel? One = 2 Electrons, Three = 6 Electrons, Five = 10 Electrons, Seven= 14 Electrons
What is Electron Configuration? A list of sublevels with electrons, the periodic table is divided into four blocks.
What is ionization? the process of adding or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms ( atoms that do not filled valence shells may undergo ionization )
What is an ion? a charged atom
What is a neutral atom vs. charges atom a neutral atom has lost of gained one or more electrons; if an atom gains or looses an electron it is no longer is neutral ( # p and # e are not equal )
What is the nuclear symbol and the charge? in example: Mg---top- 24, bottom-12, charge- top left +2
What is cation? positively charged ion ( less electrons than protons )
What is anion? negatively charged ion ( more electrons than protons )
How do you name a cation? uses the name of the parent atom; in example: Na + is called Sodium ion
How do you name an anion? use the root name of the atom and change the ending to have the suffix "-ide"; in example: F- is called Fluoride
What are chemical bonds? a force that holds atoms or ions together so they can obtain eight electrons in their valence shells
What are metal-metal combinations ( Alloys )? form metallic bonds, can conduct electricity, do not write formulas for them since not exact ratios of atoms; in example: Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc
What are non-metal to metal-metal combinations? electrons transferred from one atom to the other, one gains electrons and the other has a loss of electrons ( forms ions ), new compound held together by the attraction between the negative and positive ions, and new compound is electrically neutral
What is ionic bonds? formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions ( one is positive and one is negative )
What is metals? loose electrons to become positive ions ( cations )
What is non-metals? gain electrons to become negative ions ( anions )
What do chemical formulas show? the amount of each kind of atom in a compound
What element comes first? cation on the left and anion of right; in example: K I
What are covalent bonds? formed by atoms sharing electrons ( non-metal to non-metal combo )
What are two different types of covalent bonds? [ type depends on the electronegativity between atom ] polar covalent and non- polar covalent bonds
What is electronegativity? attraction of an atom for an electrons ( increases as you go across and up the periodic table )
What are polar-covalent bonds ? unequal sharing of electrons, electrons clouds over lap ( 1 of the involved atoms having a higher electronegativity ), uneven distributed of the electron charge, molecules will have charged regions
What are non-polar bonds ? " no pull ", equal sharing electrons, no charged regions, atoms with same or close electronagivity, symmetrical in sharp
How do identify if compound formula is ionic or covalent? refer to notes
What are hydrogen bonds? attraction between molecules ( not atoms ) that are polar covalently bonded; weakest of all chemical bonds, very important for life, and responsible for unique properties ( water, structure of proteins, and shape of DNA )
What is chemical reactions? process by which chemical changes occur; rearrangement of atoms
What is in a chemical reaction? bonds between atoms are broken, atoms remain intact, new bonds are formed, conservation of mass
What is chemical equation? a symbolic representation of chemical reaction
What is balanced chemical equation? same number of each type of atom on each side of equation (refer to notes to know how )
What is the reactants? the left side of the equation
What is the product? the right side of the equation
What are the factors that increase a reaction rate? the temp ( molecules more faster ), the surface area ( more area to make contact ), concentration ( more molecules to collide ), pressure ( greater chance for collision )
What are catelysts? substances that change the rate of the chemical reactions without entering into the reaction ( not reactant or product; reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction so it happens more quickly )
What are enzymes? part of our body ( proteins ) that speeds up complicated reactions that are too slow at our normal body temp.
What is inhibitor? inactivities; hold that reactant from reacting with other substances; in example: decreases temp of food and decreases the bacteria rate
What is organic chemistry? the study of compounds containing carbon, was only living organisms, human substance ( such as plastics ) many organics are hydrocarbons ( contain H- C )
What is inorganic chemistry? the study of non hydrocarbon compounds ( non biological orgins )
What the is the percent of water that covers the earth 75% but less than 1 % of the Earths total volume
What is the percent of saline water? 97% of the earths water
What is the percent of fresh water? 3% of the earths water
What is the fresh water percent glacier? 69%
What is the percent is ground water? 30%
What is percent is surface water, streams, and ponds? 1%
What is the percent for human drink-age/ less than 1%
What is the percent an adult average daily use per day? 100 gallons
What is the percent of amount of water in organism/ 75% of living tree is water, 80% of bacteria, and 75% human brain and muscles
What is hydrologic cycle? the continous movement of water form the artompsphere to the earth and back
What is the evaporation? the change in water from a liquid to gas
What is transpiration? the evaporation of water through the pores of plant leaves
What is condensation? change form gas to liquid
What is percipitation? any form of water that falls back to the earths surface from the atomsphere ( rain or snow etc )
What is a runoff? water that drains of flows off the land surface ( ex. ponds or rivers , etc )
What is infiltration? water that seeps into ground
What is aquifer? layers of earth that contains water; under ground water reservoir
What is ground water? water contained in an aquifer
What is the water structure regarding charging and hydrogen bonds? a water molecule is polar covently bonded with charged regions and water molecules are hydrogen bonded ( + and - charges attract )
is water a universal solvent? yes
why is water the universal solvent? it dissolves more substances than any other liquid, water goes through the ground or through our bodies it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients, water is rarely "pure" bc it usually has minerals dissolved in it
What is a solution? Mixture of substances that are evenly spread throughout each other. Particles in a solution are: Molecular or ionic.
What does dissolves mean? Breaks into the smallest particles of the substance.
What is soluable? Capable of being dissolved.
Solvent vs. solute? Solvent: Part of the solution that does the dissolving, larger amount. Solute: Part of the solution that is dissolved; usually the smaller amount. Ex.: Salt in water.
Hydrophilic vs. Hydrophobic Hydrophilic: "love water", dissolve in water. Hydrophobic: "dislikes water" does not dissolve in water.
Water interacting with: iconic compounds compound will break down into ions, hydrophilic, forms electrolytes, ions attracted to ends of water molecules with opposite charge. Ending solution is a mixture of ions and water molecules.
Water interacting with: polar molecules Will interact with water, hydrophilic, dissolves in water, the polar covalent regions are attracted to the water. Ex: sugar in water.
Water interacting with: non polar molecules Will not interact with water, hydrophobic, does not dissolve in water. Ex: Oil and fats
What is adhesion? Attraction between dissimilar substances. Ex: Water with glass, your hand on paper.
What is cohesion? Attraction between similar substances; force that holds water to itself. Explains why water will bead up.
What is surface tension? The cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water, molecules cohere to one another strongly because no water is above them.
What is capillary action? Tendency of water to move up an narrow tube against the force of gravity; above movement of water due to cohesion and adhesion. Ex: roots of a plant
How does water expand as it freezes an it is less dense than liquid water? Substances become denser when frozen, ice is less dense than water, water is most dense at 4 degree C and less than 1 gm OC
How does floating ice help aquatic life? Allows living things to live in water, keeps water below warmer temperatures
What is specific heat? Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 KG of substances 1 degree, Calvin (Calvin = contrigrade + 273. Refer to notes.
What is lake turnover? Happens in "Spring and Fall, in summer surface is warmer, as surface cools in Fall it becomes more dense than water below it area therefore, sinks. Fall wins. Help circulation.
why does it take water longer to heat up, once it does the retaining? because of the high specific heat
How is the beach day look like considering specific heat? sand heats quicker; warm air from sand heats aid above it and causes the air to rise. Then the cooler air above the water flows in towards the beach ( wind moves left towards the ocean and heat moves up towards the sand )
How is the beach night look like considering specific heat? sands cools quicker; cool air from sand is more dense and pushes out over the ocean ( heat moves up in the ocean and the wind moves left in the sand )
What are acids? contain one hydrogen atom that dissociates ( can be removed ) when the acid is dissolved in water ( hydrogen is released as H+ [ hydrogen ion ] known as proton donors )
What will happen to acids to solution regarding concentration? it will increase the concentration of H+
what happens when H+ interact with water? to form H30+ ions called hydronium ions ( acids increase the concentration of hydronium ions [ h30 + ] when dissolved in water
what are properties of acids? electrolyte, pH less than 7, sour taste ( lemon ) corrosive: can react with metals to form H2 gas, react with carbonates to form carbon dioxide, can be dangeous + burn skin, and turns litmus paper blue
What are examples of acids? refer to notes
What are strength of acids? extent to which the acid dissociates determines it strength ( polar water allows for acids to dissolves )
What is a strong acid? dissociates completely in a solvent
What is a weak acid? releases few hydrogen ions in the solution ( lower pH the stronger the acid )
What does a strong completely dissociate and weak acid partially dissociate look like? refer to notes
How do the strong and concentration differ? strong is referring to how the acid dissociate and the concentration refers to the amount
What is acid mine drainage? streams become more acidic and removes minerals from the rocks, minerals can be dangeous, kills aquatic life
What is acid rain? wet and dry deposition that contains sulfuric acid in it
What is wet and dry depostition? refer to packet
What are bases? any substance that forms hydroxide ions ( OH- ) in a water solution, accepts H+ ions, decreases H+ in a solution, when a base is added to a solution it will increases the number of hydroxide ions in a solution
What are the properties of a base? bitter, pH greater than 7, slippery or soapy, cause burns, litmus paper blue
What are examples of bases? refer to notes
What are the strengths of bases? strong bases completely dissociate in a solution or weak bases do not completely dissociate
What is pH stand for? in french "pouvior hydrogen" meaning hydrogen power, hydrogen concentration
What is pH's definition? measurement of the amount of hydrogen ions ( H+ ) in a solution; it is a logerithmic scale based on the power of 10 ( the unit decreases in pH equals a ten fold increases in acicity )
Which is more acidic the solution with A of a pH of 6 or solution B with a pH of 4? how much? Solution B, A is 100 x less acidic than solution B
What is the range for pH for H+ and OH-? 1-7 is H+ and 7-14 is OH-, 7 even is water, it always has to equal 14 when doing calcs ( 1 x 10 -4 and 1 x 10 -5 )
What is the pH of human blood? 7.35-7.45
What is the pH of aquatic life? 6.5-8.0
What are salts? an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid ( group 1 and group 17 )
What is the neutralization reaction? combining of an acid and base of equal and opposite strengths to form a salt and water, anion from an acid combines with a cation from the base to produce an ionic compound ( salt ), h+ ions from acid combine with OH- ions of base to produce water
What are buffers? substances that prevent drastic changes in the pH of a solution
What do buffers absorb? H+ or OH- with litter change in pH
What do buffers buy time? to make adjustments and return its pH to the normal range
What is the bicarbnate system or and what is it? in our bodies that make strong acids weaker and strong bases weaker, it is in our blooodstream carry out C02 out our bodies
Does life rely on this bicabante system? yes many life forms thrive on a small pH range and rely on a buffer system
What is alkalinity? the capacity of water to neutralize or buffer acids to maintain a fairly stable pH range in water ( buffer combines with H+ ions and protects the body of water )
Created by: flanstan