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Nucleic Acid Structure

Nucleotides polymerized by phosphodiester bonds (RNA and DNA) Nucleic Acids
A chemical. Chemical double stranded polymers of deoxyribonucleotides. DNA
Single stranded polymers of unmodified nucleotides RNA
Structural strand of DNA. Single molecule of DNA, often millions of base pairs long. Encodes most of a cell's genes Chromosome
The functional unit of DNA. A region of a chromosomes. The entire DNA sequence controlling a specific trait, usually by encoding a polypeptide or functional RNA Gene
A five carbon sugar, that constitues the central moiety of nucleotides. Ribose
If you ad a base to ribose what do you get Nucleotide
The side groups of nucleotides Bases
Where are bases attached to ribose 1' carbon
Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine are Pyrimidines
Guanine and Adenine are Purines
How many charges do Guanine and Cytosine have 3
How many charges do Adenine, Thymine, and Uracil have 2
A nucleotide with a base that has one ring Pyrimidine
A nucleotide with a base that has two rings Purine
a nucleotide precursor, with a base attached to the 1' carbon of ribose, without a phophorylated 5' end Nucleoside
A nucleic acid subunit, consisting of ribose with a 5' phosphorylated carbons, and a base bound to the 1' carbon. Nucleotide
If a nucleotides has one phosphate added it's called a ..., two makes a,..., three is a Monophosphate, Diphosphate, Triphosphate
a modified nucleotide that lacks the 2' hydroxyl group on the ribose Deoxynucleotide
Deoxynucleotides are used to produce ..., while ... consistes of unmodified nucleotides DNA, RNA
What does Uracil become when it is methylated Thymine
Why is Thymine methylated To keep it from being degraded by RNAase
What type of bonds link nucleotides into long chains Phosphodiester
Where is the phosphodiester bond between nucleotides found Between the 3' hydroxyl group of one nucleotide and the 5' phosphate of an incoming nucleotide
Where are free nucleotides added in a growing chain To the 3' OH
Does DNA or RNA lack the 2' hydroxyl group DNA
DNA utilizes ... while RNA utilizes... Thymidine, Uridine
Two nucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds between specific, charged sites of their bases Base pair
How is the lenght of a piece of DNA counted By base pairs
For two strands to have matching, mirror image sequences, so that every A of one strand is paired with a T of the other and every G is paired with a C Complimentary
The two strand of the double helix are in opposite, 5'-3' orientations Anitparallel
For double helices to dissociate into single strands due to advers conditons such as elevated temperature Denaturation, Deannelaing or Melting DNA
To allow denatured DNA strands to reform double helices. This is most commonly accomplished by allwing a heated solution to cool slowly Anealing or Reannealing
For two strands from different sources to anneal. Hybridization
RNA with a sequence complimentary to a DNA or RNA Antisense RNA
DNA has what kind of charge Negative
What is the most common conformation of DNA B DNA
A right handed double hellix with 10 bp per turn B DNA
The wide space in a double helix Major groove
The narrow span in a double helix Minor groove
where to regulatory proteins and various enzymes normally bind DNA Major groove
A type of DNA conformation that is more compact than B DNA, with more tilt to the base pairs and a central hole between the trands. Formed from DNA/RNA and RNA/RNA A DNA
A left handed double helix, with characteritic regions of alternating purine, pyrimidens. REgions may be involved in repression of gene expression Z DNA
A DNA conformation between two polypyrimidine and one polypurine strands Triple-helical DNA
Created by: mhaynes