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# Volcanoes/ Earthquak

### General Science

Law of Inertia (Newton's 1st Law) An object in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by an outside force OR an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an outside force
Real Life examples of Inertia *dishes on a tablecloth *billiards *car braking
Action - Reaction (Newton's 3rd Law) for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Examples of action - reaction *space shuttle *gun firing *bike or car tire goes one way, car goes in the oppostie direction
Force any push or pull (examples: gravity and friction)
Pressure force acting on a given area; more force = more pressure
What causes earthquakes? pressure being released inside the earth
How does an earthquake happen? pressure is built up as a result of forces on rocks underground
Elastic limit the amount of pressure an object can withstans and still return to its original shape (think of a rubberband) If the elastic limit is passed, it breaks, sending vibrations through the earth = earthquake occurs
Fault A fracture in the earth where rock movement occursfound at the surface as well as deep below the surface
Normal Fault Tension causes it.....means the rocks are pulling apart (know drawing in notes)...movement is up/down
Reverse Fault (reverse of a normal fault) Compression causes it....rocks are push or "press" together..movement is up/down
Strike-slip Fault Shearing of the rock (like scissors). The rocks slide past each other...no up/down. movement is side to side
Compression wave matter is squeezed together; think of an accordian
Transverse wave matter that moves at right angles to the direction the wave is moving; think of a heart monitor or seismograph
seismic waves waves generated by earthquakes
focus of earthquake point inside the earth where seismic waves start
primary seismic waves compression waves; travel faster and arrive first
secondary seismic waves (aftershocks); transverse waves; travel slower and arrive second; do more damage
epicenter point on the earth's SURFACE directly above the focus
surface waves waves generated when seismic waves reach the surface;move slower than primary and secondary waves;cause the greatest damage (like ripples on water)
What happens when lava cools? cools around th event, creating different shapes
Calm Eruption thin magma, lamost water-like; magma is released gently out of a vent; oozes
violent eruption very thick magma; magma clogs the vent creating a buildup of pressure; sudden release of magma
shield volcano gentle slope; formed from hot, thin lava; no violent eruptions; lava erupts out of more than one vent
cinder cone volacno ash and cooled lava form a steep cone, lava from one vent, violent eruption
Composite Cone volcano steep-sided towering mountains; alternating gentle and eviolent eruptions, formed from hardened lava, flowing lava, and ash
Created by: weavergina