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A&P Finals

Knowledge of the structure of body parts helps us to understand their function. Which of the following is an accurate example of that principle? Movable joints allow us to bend our fingers to perform many different actions.
Consider the following structural levels: chemical, organ, tissue, cell, and organ system. Which level encompasses the other four? Organ System
Homeostasis is defined as... The maintenance of a relatively constant environment with in the body.
What factors influence the rate of chemical reactions? Temperature, concentration of reactants, presence of catalysts, presence of enzymes.
What is the function of water in our bodies? cool the body with sweat, maintain a fairly constant body temperature, provide an environment for chemical reactions, keep tissues, moist and reduce friction
What is ATP and what does the body use it for? Adenosine triphosphate, provides energy to the cell
What is the function of lipids in our bodies? Insulate and prevent heat loss
What are the functions of proteins? Transport, Structure, Regulation, Contraction
What is the model that helps explain how an enzyme works called? Lock & Key model
What are the functions of carbohydrates in the body? structural component of DNA, bulk in feces, energy
Which of the following statements concerning membrane transport across the plasma membrane is true? Lipid-soluble substances pass through the membrane by dissolving in the lipid bilayer.
In the process of diffusion, net movement of substances is always from a region High concentration to low concentration
What are the functions of connective tissue? Transport, Support, Storage, Insulation
Know the functions of the following types of cells: Neuron- cells of the nervous system; can conduct electrical and chemical impulses.Neuroglia- provide protection and support for neurons and form myelin.Axons-conduct action potentials away from the cell body.Dendrites-action potentials toward the heart
What are the steps in the process of tissue repair? 1) The wound fills with blood and a clot forms.2)A scab forms to seal the wound.3)An inflammatory response occurs.4)Fibroblast to the area.5)Granulation tissue develops
What is formed from granulation tissue? scar
What are the functions of the integumentary system? Protection,Sensation, Temperature regulation, Vit. D
What is the function of adipose tissue in the hypodermis? Its a storage site for fat which is an energy source.
By covering the whole body surface, the skin acts as a protective barrier and plays a role in. Immunity
How are joints classified? By Structure
Most of the joints in the appendicular skeleton are _____ joints. Synovial
How are synovial joints different from both fibrous and cartilaginous joints? Are enclosed by a joint capsule.
What is the function of a bursa? To provide a fluid-filled cushion that reduces friction.
What type of joint is found in each of the following locations? saddle-thumb;ball and socket- between humerus and scapula; hinge-between femur and tibia;plane-between carpal bones;hinge-cubital
What is the opposite of each of the following movements? plantar flexion-dorsiflexion; abduction-adduction; inversion-eversion; pronation-supinate; elevation-depression
What factors influence the range of motion of a joint? 1) The shape of the articular surfaces of the bones. 2) The amount and shape of cartilage. 3) The amount of fluid in and around the joint. 4) The strength and location of tendons and ligaments.
What are the functions of skeletal muscle? 1) body movement. 2) maintenance of posture. 3) respiration. 4) production of heat
Identify the statement concerning skeletal muscle that is true. It is responsible for locomotion.
What type(s) of muscle tissue possess(es) striations? Cardiac and Skeletal
Which type(s) of muscle tissue is (are) multinucleated? Skeletal
Which type(s) of muscle tissue has (have) cells that branch? Cardiac
Which of the following is true? Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs.
What is a sarcomere? Structural and functional unit of the skeletal muscle cell.
What is the name of the model that describes the contraction of muscle? Sliding filament model
Which of the following statements regarding the sliding filament model is false? Both actin and myosin myofilaments shorten during contraction
In which of the following situations does a resting membrane potential exist? A relaxed muscle fiber.
An action potential occurs when it reaches threshold level.
A stimulus either causes an action potential or it doesn't. This is called the ______ response. all or none response.
What events occur on the postsynaptic membrane? [Think about the process of the action potential passing from pre-synaptic to synaptic to post-synaptic.] Neurotransmitter combines with a receptor molecule.
What is the insertion of a skeletal muscle? Where the muscle attaches to distal bone.
Which branch of the nervous system is responsible for problem-solving skills? Central
What is the function of the sensory (afferent) division of the peripheral nervous system? Conveys action potentials from the sensory receptors to the central nervous.
What is the function of the motor (efferent) division of the peripheral nervous system? Transmits impulses from the central nervous system to the effector organs.
Know how the central nervous system is organized, using the following divisions:a. central nervous system-brain and spinal cord; b.peripheral nervous system-spinal nerves sensory receptors, ganglia, plexuses; c. peripheral nervous system- sensory and motor divisions. d.motor division of PNS-somatic nervous system and autonomic n.s; e.Autonomic nervous system- sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
The junction of a neuron with another cell is called Synapse-axon-synaptic vesicles-synapse-dendrites-receptor-neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitters are released from the Presynaptic terminal
What ion is necessary for the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles? Ca++
Chemical synapses are characterized by The release of neurotransmitters by the presynaptic terminal
Cardiac muscle cells are connected by electrical impulses
At an electrical synapse, two cells are connected by proteins called connexons
Put the steps at a chemical synapse in the correct order 1)Action potentials at the pre-synaptic terminal cause Ca++ channels to open. 2) Ca2+ diffuse into the cell and cause the release neurotransmitters.3). Neurotransmitters move across the synaptic cleft. 4)Neurotransmitters cause Na+ channels to open.
What is the function of the spinal cord? Links the peripheral nervous system to the brain.
Place the following parts of a reflex arc in the correct order beginning with the sensory receptor. 1)Sensory receptor, 2) Sensory neuron, 3) Interneuron, 4) Motor neuron, 5) Effector
Spinal nerves C5-T1 make up the ____________ plexus. Brachial
Upper limb movement is controlled by which nerves? C5-T2
Walking is controlled by T11-S5
Created by: mariahm222