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FSHN 459- Unit 3

why is life expectancy increasing? (4) immunizations, treatment, decreased child mortality, clean/safe water & food
which demographic has the highest life expectancy at birth? hispanic female
which demographic has the lowest life expectancy at birth? black male
what is the fastest growing group of people? >85 years
big demographic trend of older adults older women outnumber men by a significant margin
lifespan maximum number of years someone might live (110-120 years)
environment vs access to healthcare longevity depends 20% on environment, 10% access to healthcare
aerobic capacity aging activation of mitochondriogenesis by exercise may delay impairment in mitochrondrial activity w/ aging
limited cell replication theory all cells contain a genetic code that directs them a certain number of times during lifespan
molecular clock theory telomeres that cap the ends of chromosomes shorten w/ each cell division
oxidative stress theory buildup of ROS, breaks down cell membranes, accumulation of damaged cells and waste
calorie restriction and longetivity theory decrease in in take 25-30% while meeting protein, vitamin, and mineral needs (decreases BMR and oxidative stress)
aging comes w/ progressive impairment of___ that results in biological functions that result in increased vulnerability to environmental challenge and increased risk of disease and death
inflammageing development of chronic low grade inflammatory status (linked to many chronic diseases)
CNS aging decreased blood flow to the brain, decreased cerebral function, blunt thirst/taste/touch sensation and regulation, longer wake cycle
vitamin D aging conversion of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 to 1, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 is impaired
decreased GI things during aging (3) secretion (saliva, mucus, HCl, enzymes), peristalsis, B12 absorption
renal system aging takes longer to remove waste products (fewer nephrons, less blood flow, slower glomerular filtration rate)
endocrine system aging (4) decreased estrogen/testosterone, secretion of GH, decreased glucose tolerance, ability to convert vitamin D (resistance of parathyroid glad to vit D)
musculoskeletal system aging (2) decreased contractile activity, fluctuation in synthesis & breakdown
musculoskeletal system decreased: (3) lean body mass, resting metabolic rate, strength
body composition changes aging loss of LBM, water, lower reserves
prevent body composition changes "use it or lose it" weight-bearing exercises
BMI and weight peak when? 50s
women physical exercise increase in lean body mass
men physical exercise slowed total weight and body fat gains
changes in olfaction less ability to identify smells (spoiled or overcooked), possible blunted sense of enjoyment of food
sensual awareness gender differences women higher than men throughout lifespan
changes in taste # and structure of taste buds not significantly altered (functionality may change), disease and medications alter them more than age
saliva aging lack of it-> slower absorption, higher sensitivity of oral cavity
enzyme found in saliva amylase
appetite and thirst over- and under-eating occurs due to lack of regulation mechanisms; less effective thirst regulating mechanisms
vulnerability to inadequate nutrition (3) decreased appetite from loneliness, depression, drugs; lack of financial resources; limited access due to disability
major indicators of compromised nutritional status (4) weight loss, underweight/overweight, low serum albumin, inappropriate food intake
energy intake regulation communication among brain, pancreas, adipose, GI, and circulation
what affects protein needs? (3) low calorie diet, inactivity, stress mediators
how much protein? 0.8g/kg/day
assessment of protein adequacy (2) wound healing and infection
changes in protein metabolism during bedrest/inactivity & how to remedy it higher N excretion due to lack of muscle protein synthesis; use AA supplement
2 problems w/ animal proteins red meat/poultry increase likelihood of DM; preservatives/additives can damage beta cells
carbohydrates lactase deficiency can develop
n3 PUFA protective against cognitive decline, Alzheimer's, depression
diet & (age-related) cognitive disorders (3 nutrients involved in) n3 PUFA, antioxidants, B vitamins
___ exerts effects against mood disorders folate
risk factors of Alzheimer's (6) HTN, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, smoking, diabetes, obesity
brain is very susceptible to ___ and how remedied? oxidative stress b/c of many mitochondria; DHA is anti-inflammatory & an antioxidant
__ completes with ___ for sn2 position on membrane phospholipids DHA; ARA
how does MyPlate differ? (5) fluids vs dairy; bright vegetables; knife (lack of distraction); eat w/ others, exercise
3 factors that reduce intake monotonous diets; too large of portion size; inappropriate mealtimes
3 factors that promote intake appetizing appearance, liquids (between meals), eating at the same time(s) every day
beta carotene functions cognitive function, eyes, cancer
vitamin E benefits antioxidant, helps express an enzyme that decreases AA production, enhanced immune function, enhanced cognitive status
reasons for D deficiency (4) less exposure to UV, compromised conversion, resistance of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D, drug interactions
for the same vitamin D level, ___ is ____ higher in elderly than adolescents PTH is 2x higher
low levels of vitamin D associated w/ decreased cognitive functioning in the elderly
calcium supplements have possible effects on what? (2) cardiovascular health and kidney stones
higher serum calcium associated w/ higher rates of ___ CV events in postmenopausal women w/ osteoporosis
vitamin C functions (2) antioxidant, synthesis of catecholamines and neurotransmitters from AAs
folate (3) low intake; protect against vascular disorders, cognitive decline, mood disorders
B12 deficiency outcomes (2) atrophic gastritis (bacterial overgrowth), irreversible neurological symptoms
iron homeostasis is essential in ___ maintaining CNS function
causes of iron deficiency (3) blood loss from disease or medication, poor absorption, low kcal intake
excess iron causes oxidative stress that can lead to cognitive disorders
effects of Zn deficiency (3) cognitive impairment, delayed wound healing, decreased taste acuity
effects of excess Zn (2) immune impairment, more in Alzheimer's brains
magnesium few get enough; >300 enzyme systems
Paullinia cupana guarana (contains more caffeine than coffee)
caffeine more sensitive to stimulating effects of caffeine
selenium (4) antioxidant, immune, detoxifying, and brain functions
flavanoids and flavanols found in cocoa, dark chocolate, red wine, tea
cocoa flavanols heart health, brain function
flavanols study 2 cups cocoa per day for 1 month= better cognitive function and blood flow to the brain
teas contribute fluid and antioxidants
prebiotics feed health-promoting colon bacteria (FOS and GOS)
prebiotics may enhance ___ absorption calcium
probiotics help with what? (3) lactose intolerance, allergies, immunity
synbiotics prebiotics + probiotics
plant sterols/stanols compete with cholesterol in small intestine
substitute morbidity and mortality lower mortality is offset by increase in morbidity associated w/ chonic/degenerative conditions
homocysteine if elevated, higher CHD risk; B vitamin deficiency causes higher levels
hypertension higher BP puts more force on potential vessel blockages
hypertension genders 3/4 of females over 75; 2/3 of males over 75 years
factors that predispose elderly to DM (4) decreased insulin secretion, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, medications (other obvious ones)
30-75% of DM complications are attributable to ___ hypertension
metabolic dis-regulation associated w/ obesity and DM accelerates progression of ____ sarcopenia (and functional decline)
obesity and body composition (2) increased risk of cognitive disability; fat mass redistributes in the abdominal area
sarcopenic obesity excess body fat and reduced skeletal muscle mass and/or strength
osteoporosis is most common in which race? caucasians
bone loss is accelerated due to what? estrogen and testosterone loss
weight bearing exercise (2) grows due to pressure on the bone tissue; increases mineral deposits
PTH increases blood calcium levels by (3) increased absorption, decreased urinary excretion, releasing calcium from bones
minerals involved in bone building (8) Ca, Mg, P, F, B, Zn, Cu, Mn
vitamins involved in bone building (how?) C: development of collagen and bone matrix D: active transport of Ca K: formation of proteins to ^ osteoblast building & ^ osteoclast bone resorption
calcium supplement controversy increased risk of coronary events for both men and women
2/3 of Alzheimer's patients are which gender? women
obesity and cognitive decline excess hormones and cytokines, higher risk of dementia
nutrients that may have a protective effect against cognitive decline (7) n3 PUFA, vitamin C, folate, B6, B12, zinc, selenium
caffeine and cognitive decline prolonged caffeine intake is associated w/ lower cognitive decline
mechanism of caffeine and cognitive decline longer basal dendrites and higher # of spines in hippocampal neurons
hobby participation and cognitive function (3 theories) use it or lose it, cognitive reserve, positive affect
stress and cognitive decline glucocorticoids released; responsible for memory, emotional regulation (chronic exposure=bad)
flavanols function enhance dendate gyrus (function decreases w/ aging) measured by fMRI and cognitive testing
GI diseases (5) GERD, changes in acidity, constipation, diarrhea, food intolerances
nutritional remedies for GERD (5) omit chemically/mechanically irritating foods, low-fat, non-spicy, caffeine/fermented, alcohol
vitamin B12 deficiency is called pernicious anemia (often due to hypochlorhydria)
food-bound B12 malabsorption (causes) (3) inflammation, bacterial overgrowth, antacids
effects of B12 deficiency (3) neurological damage, walking/balance disturbances, cognitive impairment
general nutritional remedies for inflammatory diseases (6) weight loss, antioxidant, vit D, flavonoids, vegetarian, food allergies
sleep and risk of disease <6 or >9 related to all cause mortality among others
what is health not just absence of disease; dynamic
centenarian >100 years old
no national birth registration system until 1940
90% of centenarians in okinawa are women
majority of centenarians in Sardinia, Italy are males
supercentenarian >110
okinawa centenarian study slower age related decline; fewer Alzheimer's, CVD, cancer
why a longer life? (5) medical, public health infrastructure, housing, income, nutrition
secret to longetivity "ikigai"- that which make's one's life worth living
daily exercise (3) provides energy, reduces stress, contributes to a sense of community
Okinawans relationship w/ food they look for meaning and see it as a social activity
seasonal food Okinawans get a constant diversity of nutrients because it changes throughout the seasons
hara hachi bu 80% full (Confucian-inspired)
Okinawans eat ___ ___, ___ ___ fewer calories, more food
Paramount foods of Okinawans F&V; more nutrients; higher antioxidants
meatless protein sources soy (antioxidants/phytochemicals), seafood (n-3)
lack of sleep can lead to (3) overeating, decreased cognitive function, depression
gujah having a strong-willed character; hold yourself accountable
adaptability characteristic of Okinawans- challenges and setback can keep one cognitively aware and mentally strong
overarching character traits to meaningful longevity (3) enthusiasm, curiosity, open-mindedness
Created by: melaniebeale