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Word List

absorption the passage of simple nutrients into the bloodstream
achlorhydric absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
aerophagia swallowing air
anal sphincter the constricting muscle at the anus which relaxes to allow passage of stool
anorectal pertaining to both the anus and the rectum
anus the outlet of the rectum
ascending colon first portion of the colon, extending from the cecum to the lower border of the liver
buccal pertaining to the cheek
bulimia an eating disorder characterized by binge eating, purging, and vigorous exercise
cecum first 2-3" of the large intestine
celiac pertaining to the abdomen
cheiloplasty surgical repair of the lip
cholangioma tumour of the bile duct or vessel
cholecystogram radiographic record of the gallbladder
cholelith a gallstone
choledocholithotomy removal of a gallstone through an incision of the bile duct
colon also called the large intestine; it is divided into four portions and is responsible for absorption and elimination
descending colon third continuation of the colon which joins and forms the sigmoid colon
diarrhea the passage of unformed watery bowel movements
digestion the process by which food is broken down, mechanically and chemically in the GI tract and converted into an absorbable form that can be used by the body
diverticulitis inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop int he wall of the large intestine
duodenum uppermost division of the small intestine; receives secretions to aid in digestion
elimination to pass urine from the bladder or stool from the bowel
enema the introduction of liquid into the rectum for cleansing the bowel and for stimulating evacuation of the bowels
enterostomy surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall
epiglottis a flap of tissue covering the trachea, which prevents food and liquids from entering the airway
esophagojejunostomy anastomosis of the esophagus and jejunum
esophagus a muscular canal which extends from the pharynx to the stomach
gallbladder an organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastrointestinal system provides the body with nutrients, electrolytes and water by ingestion, digestion, elimination and absorption
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
hernia abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structures that normally contain it
ingest to eat
ileostomy surgical formation of an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall
ileum lower division of the small intestine
jejunorrhaphy surgical repair of the jejunum
jejunum second division of the small intestine
laryngopharynx the lower portion of the pharynx which divides into the trachea and esophagus
lingual pertaining to the tongue
liver the largest glandular organ which functions include: producing bile, removing glucose from the blood, and storing vitamins
liver scan radiographic visualization of the liver after injection of a radioactive substance
mastication chewing - the first stage of digestion
nasopharynx the portion of the throat above the soft palate and behind the nose
occult blood a test in which stool samples are collected to determine gastrointestinal bleeding
oropharynx the central part of the throat between the soft palate and epiglottis
pancreas an organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion
pharynx passageway for air from the nose to the larynx and for food from the mouth to the esophagus
proctoplasty surgical repair or reconstruction of the rectum or colon
proctologist one who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus
rectum last portion of the GI tract which terminates at the anus
sialolithiasis presence of a stone in the salivary gland
sigmoid colon a flexure of the colon which joins the descending colon and the rectum
small intestine a continuation of the GI tract responsible for absorption. Consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
stomach a sac-like structure in the abdominal cavity, responsible for digestion of food
stoma an artificial opening, in this case, one from the bowel through the abdominal wall
stomatitis inflammation of the mouth of the stomach
trachea cartilaginous tube which extends from the larynx to the bronchial tubes
transverse colon second portion of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen toward the spleen
ulcer a lesion of the skin or mucous membrane which frequently develops in the duodenum or stomach
ulcerative colitis inflammation and ulceration of the innermost lining of the colon
Created by: deyoht_kwa