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myth/myst review


Holism The study of human societies as sums of their parts
Ethnography The descriptive study of human societies
Participant observation A research method where anthropologists participate in the lives of the people under study while at the same time making objective observations
worldview how people perceive and interpret their reality in different societies
Cultural Relativism Attempting to analyze and understanding cultures other than one’s own without judging them in terms of one’s own culture
Ethnocentrism: Using one’s own culture as the basis for interpreting and judging other cultures
Shamans part-time religious specialists receive power directly from the spirit world sometimes called “wounded healers” because they become a shaman through illness, accident, spirit possession, etc
Priests full-time religious specialist formal religious institutions. representative of the community to the deity or deities responsible for the performance of prescribed rituals and periodic rituals. found in more complex food-producing societies.
The skill of a priest is based on learning of ritual knowledge, sacred narratives, and how to perform these rituals for the benefit of the community.
Priestly rituals usually take place in a space that is set aside for ceremonial activities, such as a temple or shrine.
Magic rituals people use to control the supernatural. usually includes: a spell, the manipulation of objects, special conditions for the performer of the ritual. The oral text is often known as a spell.
The Law of Similarity things that are alike are the same
The Law of Contact (Contagion) things that were once in contact continue to be connected
Magic is most frequently found in situations that are unpredictable (fear, anxiety, etc.)
Magic involves the use of plant material, called medicines, in which supernatural power resides among the Azande.
plant material medicines
Differences in the concept of the soul among human societies include the size of the soul the number of souls a human possesses the location of the soul in the human body. In some societies one’s soul is in one’s shadow or in one’s reflection in a mirror.
immortal, eternal soul We can find belief of this in Hinduism.
Ghost can best be thought of as a soul that remains in the world of the living.
In eastern European folk belief, a vampire is a person who a person who, having died before his time, returns to life to bring death to his friends and neighbors
The origins of Halloween can be found in a(n) ancient Celtic festival called Samhain.
God an individual supernatural being, w/ distinctive name, personality, and control or influence of a major aspect of nature (such as rain or fertility), that encompasses the life of an entire community or a major segment of the community
Baseball Magic Article Magic-like rituals athletes in athletic competition. Certain ritual behaviors are adopted because the player associated certain activities with success
anthropomorphic entities ex: Gods (Nonhuman entities that have human characteristics).
Spirit less powerful than a god and usually more localized; tend to be associated with specific locations. provide protection and success also are blamed for minor mishaps. They are not responsible for some powerful aspect of nature.
Pantheon Refers to a hierarchy of gods. All gods and goddesses in a polytheistic system form a pantheon.
Sorcerers perform magic rituals to achieve their evil ends instead of willing evil to occur
Witches supernatural power that lies within their body- differ from sorcerers in small-scale societies- can kill by willing death to occur
The concept of witchcraft in small-scale societies is largely based on the work of E. E. Evans-Pritchard
Evans-Pritchard concluded that a belief in witchcraft serves three functions: It provides an explanation for the explainable; it provides a set of cultural behaviors for dealing with unfortunate it serves to define morality.
Zande believes that witchcraft is: a substance found within the body of the witch.
Salem Witch trials A series of witchcraft trials and executions took place in the late 17th century in the United States, in the town of Salem, Massachusetts.
Diffusion: The movement of culture traits from one culture to another
Acculturation: The process whereby a culture accepts traits from a dominant society. the situation whereby a culture is significantly changed because of exposure to the influence of a politically and technologically dominant culture.
Assimilation: A condition whereby a dominated culture has changed so much because of outside influences that it ceases to have its own distinct identify
Culture change occurs through the processes of discovery, invention, and diffusion
syncretism Traits from two cultures fuse to form something new and yet, at the same time, permit the retention of the old by subsuming the old into a new form, (ex: Vodou in Haiti, Santeria in Cuba)
In Cuba the deities are called: Orisha
In Cuba the deities are known by: Their Yoruba names (Santeria).
Vodou Haiti- Rich in symbolism- Art, dance and music play central roles in ritual.- Resembles traditional West African religions - characterized by a pantheon of intermediary deities, spirit possession, and offerings placed on altars.
The Ghost Dance of 1890 begun by a Paiute prophet Wovoka promised the return of the ancestors and the disappearance of the dominant society. an example of a nativistic movement
Nativistic movement a type of revitalization movement that develops in traditional societies that are threatened by the activities of more technologically advanced societies.
Sect vs denomination: Many religious groups develop by branching off of established mainstream religions.
Sect A new branch of a mainstream religion, usually involving new revelations, new scriptures, and a new leader.
Denomination The groups that remain mainstream and differ the least from the original religion
UFO religions examples of new religious movements. An example of a UFO religion is Heaven’s Gate
Virtual Religion Article benefits of St. John’s Internet Church. open 24/7 for worship. Seated view where the participant looks as if he/she is actually seated in a church setting. Allows one to move at their own pace to understand all materials being taught.
purpose of death rituals/funerals channeling the expressions of grief determining the fate of the soul, protecting the community of ghosts
Revitalization movement forms in attempt to deliberately bring about change in a society. may be brought about by political and economic marginalization, malnutrition and high level of epidemic disease, and perception that values of the community are being threatened.
Fundamentalism: return to fundamental principles usually includes a resistance to modernization and emphasis on certainty through a literal interpretation of scriptures.
Features of fundamentalism Totalism, scripturalism,and traditioning.
James G. Frazer Sympathetic Magic article. Magic is closely related to science.
Campbell, Heidi (2007), ‘What Hath God Wrought Kosher Cell Phone This article shows that a religious group’s response to a technology cannot be separated from those values that guide all aspects of community life
Haitian Vodou as case of religious syncretism Vodou syncretism is the association of particular Iwa with Catholic saints and manifestations of the Virgin, i.e. in Haitian Vodou, the identification of the Yoruba deity Legba as St. Peter is an example of syncretism
Santeria as cases of religious syncretism developed in Cuba from a fusion of West African religions, (primarily Yoruba and Spanish Catholicism) out of societies of freed slaves living in various locations and conditions Santeria deities, called orisha, show the same syncretism as the Haitian Iwa
Santeria Rule of the Orisha
E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Men Bewitch Others When They Hate Them: In addition, remember that even though somebody is seen as a witch in society, they are not deemed as a bad person in Azande society
Peter M. Worsley, “Cargo Cults” Religious movement occurring among small-scale societies of Melanesia in response to culture contact; the movement focuses on the attainment of trade goods.
Michael J. Harner, “The Sound of Rushing Water” Among the Jivaro Tribe, the shamans hold very strong power over supernatural forces; strong enough to be able to fully curse and kill, and to fully heal and cure someone. They gain this power by entering a tranced state of being with a hallucinogen.
Paul Boyer et al., Witchcraft and Social Identity looks at the pattern of witchcraft accusations as a result of socioeconomic and political factions in Salem during the 17th century.
Ideas of witchcraft in Europe were influenced by Christian ideas about the nature of evil
In Euro-American witchcraft beliefs, witches define all that is wrong and immoral
Christianity accepts the existence of an evil spirit, known as Satan or the Devil
In (euro-american) belief system witches are individuals whose evil power originates with a pact with the Devil
In Europe, witchcraft beliefs were merged with sorcery.
Sorcery became associated with the invocation of spirits, which was defined as being hostile to God
Magic and witchcraft became not just crimes against society, but also heresy/crimes against God.
Witchcraze period began at the end of the Middle Ages (around 1450) and lasted for about 200 years
Anyone doing any form of magic was seen as calling on the servants of Satan
most likely targets of witchcraft accusations People who exhibit antisocial behavior
What need do witches fulfill our unconscious need to blame someone for the misfortunes that we experience in our daily lives
Patterns of witchcraft accusations reflect on conflicts and divisions in a society
Created by: aalle048