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Fraser Academy Sc10

Vocabulary chapter 2

Energy flow transfer of energy from one organism to another in an ecosystem
How do organisms interact with their ecosystem obtains food energy contributes to energy of the ecosystem
How are energy flow and feeding relationships in ecosystems modelled Ecologists use three models to illustrate energy flow and feeding relationships1. Food Chains2. Food Webs3. Food Pyramids
Food Chains show the flow of energy from plant to animal and from animal to animal
Producers Are plants because they produce food in the form of carbohydrates during photosyntheis
Consumers Eat plants and other organisms.
Tophic Level Each step in a food chain is called a tophic level
Food Webs Many animals are part of more than one food chain in an ecosystem.The eat or are eatenInterconnected food chains are a food web
Omnivores animals that eat plans and other animals
Food Pyramid (ecological pyramid) is a model that shows the loss of energy from tophic level to another When one organism consumes another, the energy stored in the food organism is tranferred to the comsumer-80-90% is used for chemical reactions -lost in heat*ecosystems can support fewer
How do dead organisms contribute to energy flow? Decompositions describes the breakdown of organic wastes
Decomposition decomposers release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the decomposition of crarbon dioxide
Biodegradation when living organisms carry out decomposition
Detrivores small insects, earthworms, bacteria, and fungi-obtain energy and nutrients by eating dead: plants, animals and animal wast
Decomposers bacteria and fungi, change wastes and dead organisms into nuttrientsDetrivores & Decomposers feed at every trohpic level
Biomass the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem
Photosynthesis process in plants-carbon dioxide enters leaves and reacts with water and sunlight= carbohydrates and oxygen
Tertiary consumers an organism in the fourth trophic level eg. hawks and sea otters-obtain energy by eating secondary consumers
Tropic a step in a food chain-shows feeding and relationships among organisms
Give two examples of detrivores mushrooms, bacteria
Nutrient are chemicals required by plants and animals to grow and other life processes
Stores nutrients that are accumulated for a short or long period in Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land
Name the three main nutrient cycles carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus
Nutrient cycles describe the flow of nutrients in and out of stores as a result of biotic and abiotic processes
biotic relating to living organisms such as plants, animals fungi and bacteria
abiotic relating to non-living parts of an environment: sunlight, soil, mositure and temperature
How does the carbon cycle work? carbon is an essential component of cells and life-sustaining chemical reactions.Cabron moves between stores via six main processes:PhotosynthesisCellular respirationDecompositionOcean processesVolcanic eruptionsforest fires
Cellular respiration plants and animals obtain energy by converting carbohydrates and oxygen; in carbon dioxide and water
Ocean processes Dissolved cabon dioxide is stored in oceans.Marine organisms store carbon-rich carbonate in their shells, shich forms sedimentary rock
Carbonate a combination of carbon and oxygen that is dissoved in the ocean
How do human activities affect the carbon cycle? fossil fuel combustion and land clearance, quickly put carbon into the atmosphere. This increases the level of carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas contributes to global warming
How does the Nitrogen cycle work? Nitrogen is tored in the atmosphere as nitrogen gas N2. It is stored in water, living organisms, and decaying organic matter. The cycle involves four proceses:Nitrogen fixationNitrificationUptakeDenitrification
Nitrogen fixation nitrogen gas is converted into nitrate NO3 and ammonium NH+4 compounds that are usable by plants.It occurs mainly through nitrogen-fixing bacteria , and when lightening strikes in the atmosphere
Nitrification Ammonium is converted into nitrate and nitrite NO2 through the work of nitrifying bacteria
Uptake useable forms of nitrogen are taken up by palnt roots and incorporated into plant proteins. Then herbivores and omnivores eat plants and incorporate nitroen into their own tissues
Denitrification denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate back into atmospheric nitrogen
How do human activities affect the nitrogen cycle/ fossil fuel combustion, burning organic matter release nitrogen into the atmosphere and this form acid rain. Chemical fertilizers leaches into lakes and streamshigh levels of nitrogen cause eutrophication-too many nutrients and increase algal growth in aq
How does phosphorus cycle work? Phosphorus carries energy to cells.PO3-4 found in rock and sediments on the ocean floorweathering through chemical or physical means breaks down rock, releasing phosphate into the soil for longer-term stores.Organisms take up phsphorus.When they die, deco
geological uplift mountain building-Earth's crust folds and deeply buried rock layers rise
How do pollutants affect food chains and ecosystems human activitY creates harmful pollutants that decomposers are unable to break down
Bioaccumulation the gradual build up of pollutants in living organisms
Biomagnification pollutants accumulate and becom more concentrated at each trophic level.organisms at lower trophic levels may be affected by the pollutant but primary, secondary and tertiary consumers are more affected because levels will build up in their tissues as the
PCB concentrations Example:In Orcas=store up PCBs in their blubber when no salmon are available they use the blubber for energy this releases PCB into their system
Keystone species e.g. salmon) that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem
What are some human-made compounds that bioacumulate and biomagnify? PCBs -once used in industrial products are now bannedthey interfere with normal functioning of the body's immune systemCause problems with reproductionthey stay in the environment a long timeAquatic ecosystems are most sensitiveOrganisms at high trophic l
Half-life time it takes for teh amount of a substance to decrease by half
POPs persistent organic polluntants harmful, carbon-containing compounds that remain in water and soil for years
DDTs (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane toxic POP that was used as pesticide
Pesticide a chemical that is used to eliminate pests(insecticide to kill bugsherbicide that kills weeds
Parts per million (ppm) one particle of a substance mixed with 999 999 other particles
Heavy metals lead, cadmium ad mercuryare toxic in low concentrationsHuman activities can cause these metasls to buiuld up: insecticides, batteries and paintselectronic waste
bioremediation a method of removing chemical pollutants where micro-organisms or plants help cleanreacting contaminants with certain chemicals can also make them less harmful
Created by: HeatherTutor