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Carnegie Chem NPN

Chemistry NPN Compound and Palsma Protein WS MA Fall 2014

What are the NPN compounds? urea, creatinine, uric acid, ammonia, creatine, amino acids
What are most NPN compounds? Waste products that require cood kidney function
Do NPN compounds contain nitrogen? Yes
Are NPN compounds proteins? NO
Which NPN compounds are waste products? urea, creatinine, uric acid, ammonia
Which NPN compounds are building blocks? creatine, amino acids
What is urea the breakdown of? protein
Where is urea formed and from what? Formed in the liver, from ammonia
What does BUN stand for? Blood, Urea, Nitrogen
What is the BUN test really for? Urea, a kidney function test
What two things affect serum BUN? protein in diet and catabolism; urine volume
What causes increased BUN? There are Pre-renal, Renal and Post renal causes
What is a pre-renal cause of increased BUN? dehydration- vomiting and diarrhea; cardiac insufficiency
What is a renal cause of increased BUN? kidney disease - any type
What is a post renal cause of increased BUN? urinary tract obstruction; kidney stones, enlarged prostate
What is azotemia? increased NPNs in blood
What is the function of creatine and phosphocreatine? high energy storage in the brain and muscle
What does creatine and phosphocreatine break down into? creatinine
Where does creatine and phosphocreatine break down? occurrs in the muscle
When is serum creatinine increased? kidney disease; muscle destruction (severe or strenuous exercise)
What are two tests to assess kidney function? BUN; Creatinine
What is uric acid the breakdown product of? Nucleic acid ( also called prurines)
What are prurines (nucleic acids)? Building blocks of DNA
Where is uric acid formed? The liver
Which foods are high in prurines? High protein foods (liver)
When is uric acid increased in the serum? Gout
What is gout? Uric acid crystals deposit in the joints
Where is ammonia made? Made by bacteria in intestine
Failure of which organ would cause increased serum ammonia? The liver
what are amino acids? Building blocks of protein
what are the different plasma proteins? Albumin, fibrinogen, alpha globulins, beta globulins, gamma globulins
Where are albumin, fibrinogen, alpha globulins and beta globulins made? Made in the liver
Where are gamma globulins made? in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system- lymph, spleen, bone marrow
What is an important functon of proteins? transport of non soluble items such as metal ions, hormones and lipids
What is the function of albumin? maintains normal blood volume
What is the function of fibrinogen? maintains clotting of blood
What is the function of gamma globulins? antibodies
What does TSP stand for? Total serum protein
What does TSP measure? sum of all albumin and all globulins
What causes increased TSP? multiple myeloma, dehydration
What causes decreased TSP? nephrotic syndrome/ kidney disease; liver disease- production of protein is decreased
What does A/G ratio stand for? albumin divided by globulin
What is a normal A/G ratio result? 1.0 - 2.5
In which diseases is the A/G ratio decreased? liver disease, kidney disease
What is electrophoresis? used to seperate proteins into specific fractions by the movement of electrically charged particles in an electric field
What does NPN stand for? Non protein nitrogen containing compounds
Created by: ma2b