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Literary Styles/Eras

Amatory fiction Romantic fiction written in the 17th century and 18th century, primarily written by women.
Amatory fiction Eliza Haywood, Delarivier Manley
Cavalier Poets 17th century English royalist poets, writing primarily about courtly love, called Sons of Ben (after Ben Jonson).
Cavalier Poets Richard Lovelace, William Davenant
Metaphysical poets 17th century English movement using extended conceit, often (though not always) about religion.
Metaphysical poets John Donne, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell
The Augustans An 18th century literary movement based chiefly on classical ideals, satire and skepticism.
The Augustans Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift
Romanticism 18th to 19th century movement emphasizing emotion and imagination, rather than logic and scientific thought. Response to the Enlightenment.
Romanticism Victor Hugo, Lord Byron
Gothic novel • Fiction in which Romantic ideals are combined with an interest in the supernatural and in violence.
Gothic novel Ann Radcliffe, Bram Stoker
Lake Poets • A group of Romantic poets from the English Lake District who wrote about nature and the sublime.
Lake Poets William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge
American Romanticism Distinct from European Romanticism, the American form emerged somewhat later, was based more in fiction than in poetry, and incorporated a (sometimes almost suffocating) awareness of history, particularly the darkest aspects of American history.
American Romanticism Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne
Pre-Raphaelitism 19th century, primarily English movement based ostensibly on undoing innovations by the painter Raphael. Many were both painters and poets.
Pre-Raphaelitism Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Christina Rossetti
Transcendentalism 19th century American movement: poetry and philosophy concerned with self-reliance, independence from modern technology.
Transcendentalism Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
Dark romanticism 19th century American movement in reaction to Transcendentalism. Finds man inherently sinful and self-destructive and nature a dark, mysterious force.
Dark romanticism Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, George Lippard
Realism Late-19th century movement based on a simplification of style and image and an interest in poverty and everyday concerns.
Realism Gustave Flaubert, Stendhal, Honoré de Balzac, Leo Tolstoy, Frank Norris
Naturalism Also late 19th century. Proponents of this movement believe heredity and environment control people.
Naturalism Émile Zola, Stephen Crane
Symbolism Principally French movement of the fin de siècle based on the structure of thought rather than poetic form or image; influential for English language poets from Edgar Allan Poe to James Merrill.
Symbolism Stéphane Mallarmé, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Valéry
Stream of consciousness Early-20th century fiction consisting of literary representations of quotidian thought, without authorial presence.
Stream of consciousness Virginia Woolf, James Joyce
Modernism Variegated movement of the early 20th century, encompassing primitivism, formal innovation, or reaction to science and technology.
Modernism T. S. Eliot, H.D.
The Lost Generation It was traditionally attributed to Gertrude Stein and was then popularized by Ernest Hemingway in the epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises, and his memoir A Moveable Feast. It refers to a group of American literary notables who lived in Paris and othe
The Lost Generation F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Ezra Pound, Waldo Pierce
Dada Touted by its proponents as anti-art, dada focused on going against artistic norms and conventions.
Dada Guillaume Apollinaire, Kurt Schwitters
First World War Poets Poets who documented both the idealism and the horrors of the war and the period in which it took place.
First World War Poets Siegfried Sassoon, Rupert Brooke
Imagism Poetry based on description rather than theme, and on the motto, "the natural object is always the adequate symbol."
Imagism Ezra Pound, Elizabeth Bishop, Richard Aldington
Harlem Renaissance •African American poets, novelists, and thinkers, often employing elements of blues and folklore, based in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City in the 1920s.
Harlem Renaissance Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston
Confessional poetry • Poetry that, often brutally, exposes the self as part of an aesthetic of the beauty and power of human frailty.
Confessional poetry Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath
New York School Urban, gay or gay-friendly, leftist poets, writers, and painters of the 1960s.
New York School Frank O'Hara, John Ashbery
Magical Realism • Literary movement in which magical elements appear in otherwise realistic circumstances. Most often associated with the Latin American literary boom of the 20th century.
Magical Realism Gabriel García Márquez, Octavio Paz, Günter Grass, Julio Cortázar
Postcolonialism • A diverse, loosely connected movement of writers from former colonies of European countries, whose work is frequently politically charged.
Postcolonialism Jamaica Kincaid, V. S. Naipaul, Derek Walcott, Salman Rushdie, Wole Soyinka
Postmodernism • Postwar movement skeptical of absolutes and embracing diversity, irony, and word play.
Postmodernism Jorge Luis Borges, Thomas Pynchon, Alasdair Gray
Beat poets • American movement of the 1950s and '60s concerned with counterculture and youthful alienation.
Beat poets Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs, Ken Kesey
Southern Agrarians • A group of Southern American poets, based originally at Vanderbilt University, who expressly repudiated many modernist developments in favor of metrical verse and narrative. Some Southern Agrarians were also associated with the New Criticism.
Southern Agrarians John Crowe Ransom, Robert Penn Warren
Surrealism • Originally a French movement, influenced by Surrealist painting, that uses surprising images and transitions to play off of formal expectations and depict the unconscious rather than conscious mind.
Surrealism Jean Cocteau, Dylan Thomas
Created by: maleqr