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Medical Term 13

Medical Terminology Terms (1-156) teacher328

ACL Anterior Cruciate Ligament of the knee
Acquired Immunity Formation of antibodies and lymphocytes after an exposure to an antigen
Addison Disease Hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
Aden/o Gland
-algia Pain
Allergies Abnormal hypersensitivity acquired by exposure to an antigen
Anaphylaxis exaggerated or unusual hypersensitivity to a foreign protein or other substance
Aneurysm enlarged, weakened area in an arteral wall, which may rupture, leading to a hemorrhage and CVA (stroke)
Angi/o Vessel
Alveoli A collection of air sacs in the lungs
Angiography X-ray of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessel.
Angiosarcoma A malignant tumor of the blood vessel tissue
Anoxia An abnormal condition characterized by a local or systemic lack of oxygen in the body.
Antigen A substance, usually a protein, that the body recognizes as foreign and that can invoke an immune response.
Aorta The largest artery in the body. The main trunk of the systemic arterial circulation.
Aplastic Anemia A deficiency of all of the formed elements of blood. Specifically red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Arthroscopy Visual examination of the inside of a joint with an endoscope and television camera.
Ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Ataxia Persistent unsteadiness on the feet, can be caused by a disorder involving the cerebellum; An impaired ability to coordinate movements. A staggering gait and postural imbalance are caused by a lesion in the spinal cord or cerebellum.
Atelectasis An abnormal condition characterized by a collapse of alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in a part of the lungs.
Ather/o Yellowish plaque, fatty substance
Atrophy Wasting away
Auscultation Listening to sounds in the blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope
Azotemia Toxic condition is characteristic of uremia. An excess in the blood of urea, creatinine and other nitrogenous end products of protein and amino acids.
Biological therapy Treatment with substances that can stimulate the immune system to fight disease more effectively
-blast Growth of formation, immature cells
BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy)
Bradycardia Slow heartbeat (slower than 60 beats per minute)
Brainstem The lower part of the brain which connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
Bronchioles Smallest branches of the bronchi. Terminal bronchioles lead to alveolar ducts
Bronchoscope Placed through the throat, larynx and trachea into the bronchi. .A device to observe the bronchi
BUN Blood Urea Nitrogen. Measurement of the urea levels in blood
Cachexia General ill health and malnutrition ( wasting of muscle and emaciation) and associated with severe chronic disease
CA-125 Protein marker elevated in ovarian cancer (normal range of value is 0-35)
Calcaneus Called the heal bone. The largest bone in the foot.
Cardi/O Heart
Carcinoma in Situ Referring to localized tumor cells that have not invaded tissue.
Carcinogens Agents that cause cancer. Chemicals, drugs, radiation and viruses.
Cardiologist Is an internal medicine specialist who takes additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease.
Cardiology The process of studying the heart
Cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart
Cauterization Destruction of tissue by burning
Cephal/O Head
Cerebellum Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain, stroke.
Cerebrum Largest part of the brain. Functions include thinking, personality, movement, and memory.
Cervical Vertebra C1C7, The first seven vertebrae- they do not articulate (join) with the ribs. The first seven bones of the vertebral column, forming the boney aspect of the neck.
Cervix The narrow, lowermost portion of the uterus
Cholecystectomy Removal of the gallbladder by laparoscopic or open surgery. Procedure is performed for symptomatic gallstone disease.
Cholelithiasis Gallstones in the gallbladder
Cirrhosis Chronic degenerative disease of the liver
Comat/o Deep sleep
Compound fracture A bone is broken and a fragment of bone protrudes through an open wound in the skin
Congestive heart failure The heart is unable to pump its required amounts of blood "more blood enters the heart from the veins than leaves through the arteries.
Contraindication Are factors in a patients condition that make the use of a drug dangerous and ill advised.
Cushing's disease A metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal increase secretion of adrenal cortical steroids particularly cortisol, caused by increased amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by the pituitary, such as pituitary adenoma.
Cytoscopy The diagnostic study of cells obtained from the patient specimens with the aid of microscopes and other laboratory equipment
-cytosis A condition in which there is a greater than normal number of cells in a tissue or organ
Deglutition Swallowing
Dehydration Excessive loss of water from body tissues
Dermatitis An inflammation condition of the skin
Diabetes Mellitus A complex disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism that is primarily a result of a deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or resistance to insulin
Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) Diabetic coma, an acute, life threatening complication of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.
Dialysis process of separating nitrogenous waste materials from the bloodstream when the kidneys no longer function
Dieresis Separation of a structure's part by surgery or other means.
Dislocation The displacement of any part of the body from its normal position, particularly a bone from its normal articulation with a joint.
Doppler ultrasound studies using sound waves to detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries.
DVT, deep vein thrombosis A disorder involving a thrombus in one of the deep veins of the body, most commonly the iliac of femoral vein.
Dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing.
Dysphonia Hoarseness or other voice impairment
Dystocia Difficult labor.
ECG Electrocardiogram; A record of the electrical activity of the heart.
Echocardiogram The graphic record produced by echocardiography. Ultrasound images of the heart.
Ectopic Pregnancy Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location.
EEG Electroencephalogram
Electroencephalogram A record of the electrical activity of the brain
Endo- In; Within
Endotracheal intubation Placement of a tube through the mouth into the pharynx, larynx and trachea to establish an airway.
Enter/o Intestines (usually small intestines)
Enuresis The involuntary discharge of urine or bed-wetting, after the age which bladder control should have been established.
Eosinophils Contain granules that stain with eosin, a red acidic dye. Eosinophils are elevated in allergic reactions and parasitic infections
Epinephrine Adrenaline- Increases heart rate and blood pressure, dilates bronchial tube, and releases glucose (sugars) from glycogen (storage substance) when the body needs it for more energy. A neurotransmitter.
Erythropoietin Hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow.
Esophageal varies Swollen, twisted veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
Esophagus The muscular tube , about 10-12 inches long that carries swallowed foods and liquids from the pharynx to the stomach.
ESR Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Ewing sarcoma Malignant bone tumor
Exophthalmos Protrusion of the eyeball associated with enlargement and over activity of the thyroid gland; also called proptosis
Fallopian tube One pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus.
Fertilization Union of the sperm cell and ovum from which the embryo develops.
Fibroids Benign tumors in the uterus
Flagellum A hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile.
Gallbladder Small sac lying below the liver, in which bile is stored.
Gastr/0 Stomach
-genesis Producing; Forming
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gestation Nine month period during which a fertilized egg develops into an infant; Pregnancy.
Graves Disease Hyperfunctioning of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis is the most common type of hyperthyroidism.
-gravida A pregnant woman
Gynecology Study of the diseases of women, particularly those affecting the female reproductive system.
Hematoma Collection of mass or blood
Hematuria Blood in the urine
Hemoglobin Blood protein contained in red blood cells
Hemolytic anemia Reduction in erythrocytes due to excessive destruction of red blood cells.
Heparin Anticoagulant found in blood and tissues
Hepat/o Liver
Herniation The displacement of body tissue through an opening or a defect.
Hodgkin disease Malignant tumor of lymphatic tissue in the spleen and lymph nodes
Hyper- Above or excessive
Hypokalemia Low levels of potassium in the blood.
Hyponatremia Low levels of sodium in the blood.
Identical twins Two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg into two separate embryos.
Immun/o immune protection, safe
Immunity the condition of being immune; protection from disease
Inguinal lower most region of the abdominopelvic area on either side of the hypogastric region; groin.
Insulin Hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin facilitates transport of sugar from the blood into body cells
Jejunum Second part of the small intestine
Kaposi sarcoma Malignant tumor of skin and connective tissue; associated with AIDS.
Kinesi/o Movement
Kyphosis Abnormal condition of outward curvature (convexity) of the thoracic spine
Laparascope Instrument used to visually examine the abdomen.
Laparoscopy Process of visually examining the contents of the abdomen (using an endoscope).
Larynx The Voice box.
-lepsy seizure
Leukemia Disease of high numbers of malignant (cancerous) white blood cells.
Lith/o stone; calculus
Lithotripsy Process of using high-energy sound waves to crush a stone within the kidney or ureter.
LP, lumbar puncture Withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space between two lumbar vertebrae; spinal tap.
Malignant Melanoma Cancerous skin tumor ofter arising in pre-existing moles(nevi).
Mammography X-ray recording of the breast.
Medulla inner region of an organ.
Meninges Meninges Three membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis inflammation of the meninges
Metastasis spread of a malignant tumor from its original site to a new or distant location.
Mitral Valve valve between the left atrium and left ventricle; bicuspid valve
MRI- Magnetic and radio waves create an image of an organ the planes of the body. The brain and spinal cord can be imaged to detect lesions.
Multiple myeloma- Malignant tumor of bone marrow; over production of immunoglobulins and destruction of bone tissue
Myelin sheath Fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell.
Myocardium Muscular layer of the heart
Nephr/o Kidney
Noct/o Night
Normal sinus rhythm Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node. ( pacemaker of the heart)
Obstetrics Branch of medicine dealing with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth
Olig/o Scanty
Oliguria Scanty Urination
Oncologist Specialist in the study of tumors, particularly malignant growth
Oste/o Bone
Osteoporosis Abnormal condition of increased loss of bone tissues. Bones becomes thin, weak, brittle, and break easily.
Ovulation Release of an egg from an ovary
Oxytocin Secretion of the pituitary gland causing contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulation of milk secretion from the breast
Pancreas Gland under and behind the stomach; produces enzymes to digest foods the hormone insulin to transport sugar to cells
Pancytopenia Deficiency of all blood cells
Pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
-paresis weakness
Placenta Previa Placement implantation over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterine wall
Plasmapheresis Removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge
Created by: Teacher328