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Carnegie Chem Carb

Chemistry Carbohydrate Metabolism worksheet MA Fall 2014

Define glycogen polysaccharide- storage form of glucose
Define glycogenesis formation of glycogen from glucose
Define glycolisis glucose changed to give energy
Define gluconeogenesis formation of new glucose from fat or protein
Where is glycogen made and stored? made in the liver; stored in liver and muscle
What does the liver do in regards to glucose? Adds glucose to the blood. the activity of the liver is controlled by several hormones
Where is insulin made? in beta cells of Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas
What does insulin do? stimulates transport of glucose through the cell membrane. must be present for glucose to enter cells. controlled by the glucose concentration of the blood flowing through the pancreas.
How does insulin affect the blood glucose level? lowers it
Where is glucagon made? made in the alpha cells of pancreas
What does glucagon do? stimulate glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen into glucose)
How does glucagon affect the blood glucose level? raises blood glucose level
Where are ketone bodies made? in the liver
What are ketone bodies made from? excess fatty acids are partially metabolized into ketone bodies (waste product)
Ketone bodies are 98%... acid
Define ketonuria ketone bodies in the urine
Define ketonemia ketone bodies in the blood
Define ketoacidosis blood pH less than 7.35 due to ketone bodies (blood pH is too acid)
Define hyperglycemia high blood glucose
Define hypoglycemia low blood glucose
Define glucosuria/glycosuria glucose in the urine
renal threshold blood level above which glucose spills into the urine (maximum absorptive capacity is 160-180mg/dL)
IDDM diabetes is also known as Type I/ juvenile 5-10% OF DIABETICS
IDDM age of onset: any age, more common in youth (less than 20)
What is IDDM? insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
IDDM - type of onset: acute or abrupt
IDDM symptoms: weight loss, polyuria (increased urine), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger)
IDDM Endogenous insulin none (pancreas not making insulin)
IDDM -Causes: genetic susceptibility, autoimmune, destruction of beta cells
NIDDM- Also known as: Type II, adult onset (90 - 95%)
NIDDM Age of onset: any age, more common in adults, uaully over 30
NIDDM - Tpye of onset: gradual
NIDDM- Symptoms: sometimes none
NIDDM- Endogenous insulin: Some (pancreas is making some)
NIDDM- Oral agents used: 1/3 of the time, 1/3 diet + exercise, 1/3 need insulin injections
NIDDM- Cause: genetic- betea cell exhaustion, target cell resistance, 80% overweight, other 20% greater than ideal bodyweight
What is diabetes type determined by? What is CAUSING the diabetes
Which type of diabetes has a tendency to get ketoacidosis and is difficult to control? Type I
Which type of diabetes may be controlled by diet alone? Type II
What do diabetics in poor control metabolize instead of glucose? fatty acids/ lipids/ triglycerides
What is retinopathy? sclerosis of the tiny blood vessels in the eye specifically in the retina, harden and weak and can cause blindness, retinal detachment
what does some complications of diabetes atherosclerosis- lipid deposits within artery walls
in diabetic coma the insulin level is low
in a diabetic coma the blood glucose level is hiGh
in a diabetic coma the urine glucose is high
in a diabetic coma onset is: Hours to a day
in a diabetic coma symptoms are deep breathing/acidosis, dry/dehydration, fruity breathdue to ketones, drowsy and lethargic, coma
treat a diabetic coma with insulin
in insulin shock the insulin level is too high, not enough food/excess exercise/ alcohol lowers blood sugar
during insulin shock the blood glucose level is too low
during insulin shock the urine glucose level is Negative
during insulin shock the onset is sudden within minutes
during insulin shock the symptoms are: shallow breathing, perspiration, rapid heart action, breath odor is normal, lightheaded, I feel faint, may act intoxicated, coma - same as diabetic coma symptoms
during insulin shock treat the patient with 15 grams of readily available carbohydrate such as small boxes of raisins, 7-8 life savers, half a cup of OJ, half a cup of soda, NOT a candy bar the protein slows absorption of sugar into bloodstream
what are symptoms of hypoglycemia? blood sugar less than 45 to 60 milligrams per deciliter
what is a fasting blood glucose sample? 8 to 12 hours no food or beverages other than water
what does OGTT stand for? oral glucose tolerance test
what samples are taken for the OGTT? fasting blood sugar 1, 2, 3 hours after drinking glucola
why would the physician order and OG TT for a patient? If they think the patient is diabetic they have a high fasting glucose sample or glucose in the urine, if it runs in the family, pregnant women 24 to 28 weeks
what samples are taken for the OGTTis hypoglycemia is suspected 4 & 5 hours
give the renal threshold given the renal threshold and a patient's blood glucose level how would you determine if glucose will be in the urine by the blood glucose level
what is the normal result for 2 hour postprandial glucose test? Less than 140 milligrams per deciliter
what does the HB - A1c test measure? Hemoglobin A combined with glucose (HgbA1)
what is the advantage of the HBA 1c glycosylated hemoglobin test? Reflects blood glucose over a three month period. normal 4-%6. this is for blood sugar concentration, Not hemoglobin!
Created by: ma2b