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African History Quiz

Songhay, Kanem Bornu and the Hausa States

Principle peoples of Songhay Do-farmers Gow-hunters sorko-fisherman
who is ruler of Songhay? Sonni Ali
where is Songhay located? along middle Niger river
what is the capital of Songhay? Kukiya
what is a major trading town of Songhay that became the new capital Gao
How is Sonni Ali remembered? positive and negative positive: as a great conqueror and founder of Songhay empire. negative: ruthless tyrant and oppressor. did not practice islam so he attacks other muslims
who is founder of Askiya dynasty in Songhay? Muhammad Ture
How are Muhammad Ture and Sonni Ali different Sonni Ali was a tyrant leader and oppressor. muhammad ture reunited empire under islamic faith and was much nicer.
describe government of Songhay more centralized than Mali. rulers were not hereditary but chosen by king. removal of traditional rulers
what is main income of songhay (government revenue) taxes on trade. tribute from provinces. royal farms
Fall of Songhay 1. weakened power of Askiya (succession of short reigns and disputes). 2. natural disasters (agricultural drought and disease). 3.loss of control of trans saharan trade (shift to kanem bornu). 4. moroccan invasions of 1591 (gold supply from south declines
what was the purpose of moroccan invasion on Songhay moroccans wanted to take control of gold trade
when did Sonni Ali die and muhammad ture replace him? 1492
what did Muhammad Ture use to cement his authority? Islam and also helped to unite empire
jihad muslims wage a holy war when they feel their religion is under threat
who did muhammad ture wage a jihad against? why? the Mossi because they had not converted to Islam and to make sure the Mossi does not restrict their gold trade with Songhay. and trying to capture slaves.
under Ture what became an important center of Islamic learning Timbuktu
why does Ture not force Islam on people? he does not have traditional authority so he cannot rock the boat.
how were government officials appointed under Ture non traditional, he appointed them instead of being based on hereditary. gave Ture sole power
royal farms located in niger river flood plain. worked by slave labor. feed royal family and govt officials.
what are main items of trade in Songhay Gold, Kola nuts, slaves (Mossi captives)
Explain Leo Africanus' description of Timbuktu (people, government) exceedingly rich city, pleasant and cheerful people, many learned men. governor rides on camel while court rides on horses, fought states that refused to pay tribute.
explain leo africanus' description of Gao muhammad ture's new capital. poor city, lots of black people that buy clothes from n. africa. lots of slaves. goods are very expensive
who is morrocan sultan during invasions? what significant weapon did they have Ahmad al-mansur. muskets - 1st time used in war
who does Songhay trade with? what do they trade muslims of Gao. trade food for salt and cloths from North Africa
what are main imports from Afrcia in Songhay saharan salt from Taghaza. luxury goods. cowrie shells. horses for military use. cloth woven from local sudanese cotton
where is Kanem-Borno located? when was it founded north east of Lake Chad. 900 CE
who founded Kanem-Borno nomadic Kanuri-speaking clans under Saifawa Dynasty
factors responsible for rise of Kanem-Borno 1.raiding neighbors - the Hausa states to the south 2.participation in the trans-saharan trade
what are main exports of kanem ivory, ostrich feathers, and slaves
what is main import into kamen horses -used in raiding
capital of Kanem Borno Njimi (location unknown)
under what ruler did Kanem reach its peak of power Mai Dunama Dibalami (1210-1248)
what were Mai Dunama Dibalami's accomplishments built impressive army. extended control over trans-saharan trade. jihad war against the So
what spurred rise of Borno when kanem went into decline, borno begain acting independently and refused to pay tribute
reason for decline of Kanem empire was overstretched. few natural resources. overdependence on personal authority of the Mai. pastures overgrazed. saifawa engaged in dynastic struggle over Kanem by a rival nomad clan, the Bulala
advantage of relocation to Borno access to wider trading network. established profitable trade with Hausa states (salt and horses trade for Akan gold)
where did Kanem move their capital to Borno
what did the Mai's heavy taxes on peasants lead to? internal revolts that Mai's used Jihad to crush
how did they dole out taxes in Borno on a village or family basis
what became a major source of revenue in 16th C Borno customs dues on trade
what were Mai Idris Alooma's accomplishments reuniting Kanem and Borno. importing firearms (Muskets) from N. Africa. modernize the army. made Hausa state of Kano a tributary. emphasized Islamic code of law. Establishd diplomatic relations with ottoman conquerors. trade shfted from songhay to borno
Battle of Tondibi March 15, 1591. Moroccan defeat of Songhay caused demise of Songhay
what 2 broad factors helped growth of Kanem Borno Great army and Great leaders
in 16th C what was government like in Borno more centralized control over Borno, more taxes
what happened in 17th and 18th C in Borno (opposite of 16th C wars) relative peace. center of Islamic learning. Islam spread and Kanuri became dominant language of region. slaves remained major source of revenue
Decline of Kanem-Borno Taureg sultanate of Air asserted its independence. no longer dominated trade of central Sudan . suffered attacks from fulani jihads
Hausa emerged as intermarriage of what 2 groups of people (date) southern Saharan nomads and farmers of northern Nigerian savanna. 1000-1200
Basic political unit of Hausa states compact walled villages: protection from raids. enclosure of dwelling and cultivable land
economic basis of the Hausa states agriculture, manufacturing, and trade
what were the economic specialization of these hausa states (Gobir, Katsina,Kano,zaria) Gobir-trans saharan trade contacts. katsina-important trading center. kano-crafts and manufacturing. (moroccan leather. dark blue cloth, weaving cotton cloth.) zaria-major supplier of slaves
slavery in hausa land (how do you become one, used for) important institution, used to build and maintain city walls and grow food for urban population. war captives, by debt, orphans.
what brought Islam to Hausa land trading contacts. ruling elites converted in 14th C
Decline of Hausa city-states 1. increased rivalry among city states. 2. rulers overtaxed peasantry to finance wars-revolts. 3. illegally enslaved muslim commoners to sell as slaves
islamic law is called what sharia
how did religious leaders fight back the hausa elites enslaving muslim commoners become familiar with the islamic law. question the corruption of Hausa rulers. jihad revolutions in 19C
what is unique about Hausa states never came together to create a empire. each state has a specialization. important participants in trans saharan trade
Created by: simmonsss