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Urinary/Male Reproduction System- Reverse Defs

fistula abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another
intravenous pyelography imaging of the urinary tract after IV injection of a contrast medium; also called excretory urography
nephrostomy passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so
interstitial cystitis chronic inflammation of the bladder wall that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy; also called painful bladder syndrome
cystoscopy examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumours or other growths and removal of the polyps using a specialized endoscope
nephrolithiasis presence of a kidney stone
antispasmodics decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscles lining their walls, thus allowing normal emptying of the bladder
kidney stones or calculi hard objects built up from salts and minerals in the urinary tract
lithotriptor a device that destroys urinary stones with laser technology
nephrotomography a study in which several planes of the kidney are visualized
hydronephrosis abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that can't flow past an obstruction
mid-stream urine specimen also called clean catch urine specimen; a urine specimen collected after cleansing oneself and discarding the first part of the urine stream to avoid contamination; used for C&S
renal pelvis an enlarged funnel-shaped extension of the ureter
ureteropyelostomy anastomosis of ureter and renal pelvis
end-stage renal disease any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining function, requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant to survive
bladder neck obstruction blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the urethra
renal artery carries waste laden blood to the tubules within the kidney for purification
culture and sensitivity determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics
blood urea nitrogen determines the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea, a waste product of protein
ureterectasis dilation of the ureter
vesicoureteral reflux disorder caused by failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction in the ureter
urinary system eliminates harmful products in the blood and filters them through urination
nephron filtering units located in the kidney tissue that continually adjust body conditions to add or remove substances from the blood
filtrate fluid that passes from the blood through the capillary walls of the glomeruli into the Bowman capsule
neurogenic bladder impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction
incontinence inability to control urine elimination or bowel function
retention inability to void urine which is present in the bladder
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
polycystic kidney disease inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidneys
stent placement insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction
ureteral stent placement insertion of a thin narrow tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney
enuresis involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence
plasma liquid portion of blood that is filtered by the nephrons to remove dissolved wastes
nephronic syndrome loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin, through urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
electromyography measure the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra
dialysis mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of toxic substances, such as nitrogenous wastes, when kidneys fail to function properly
electrolyte mineral salt (sodium, potassium, or calcium) that caries an electrical charge
Bowman capsule part of the renal corpuscle; surrounds the glomerulus of the nephron
nitrogenous wastes product of protein metabolism that include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine and ammonia
cystocele prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a woman's bladder and vagina
diuretics promote and increace the excretion of urine
Wilms tumour rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children
ureterovesicostomy reimplantation of a ureter into the bladder
pyelolithotomy removal of a stone from the renal pelvis by an incision
potassium supplements replace potassium due to depletion caused by diuretics
peristaltic wave sequence of rhythmic contractions of smooth muscles of a hollow organ to force material forward and prevent backflow
peritoneum serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of the organs within the cavity
nephrolysis surgical separation of an inflamed kidney from adhesions
nuclear scan technique in which a radiopharmaceutical called a tracer is introduced into the body and a specialized camera is used to produce images of organs and structures
calyx the cuplike division of the kidney pelvis
glomerulus the microscopic cluster of capillaries within the Bowman capsule of the nephron
uremia toxic condition of nitrogenous wastes in the blood
antibiotics treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes
hemodialysis type of dialysis in which an artificial kidney machine receives waste-filled blood, and returns the dialyzed blood to the patient's bloodstream
peritoneal dialysis type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed from the body using peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfusing the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution
voiding cystourethrography x-ray of the bladder and urethra performed before, during and after voiding using a contrast medium to enhance imaging
prostate a gland of the male reproductive system which surrounds the proximal portion of the urethra
spermatocele abnormal fluid-filled sac that develops in the epididymis and may or may not contain sperm; also called spermatic cyst
testosterone androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum and prostate
testicular abnormalities any of the various disorders that affect the testes
prostate-specific antigen blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostate cancer; also called tumour marker test
hypospadias congenital abnormality where the opening of the male urethra is on the under surface of the penis, instead of at its tip
hypogonadism decrease or lack of hormones normally produced by the gonads
vas deferens excretory duct of the testes
gonadotropin hormonal preparation used to raise sperm count in cases of infertility
prostatotomy incision into the prostate
androgens increase testosterone levels
balanitis inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis, caused by bacteria, fungi or a virus
inguinal canal passageway in the groin for the spermatic cord in the male
inguinal hernia presence of a small intestine in the inguinal canal
priapism prolonged and often painful erection of the penis, which occurs without sexual stimulation
urethroplasty reconstruction of the urethra to relieve stricture or narrowing
semen fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid
sperm the male gamete or sex cell
orchiopexy fixation of the testes in the scrotum
ultrasound high-frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echos" to produce an image on a monitor of internal body structure, also called sonography and echo
impotence inability to obtain or maintain an erection
sterility inability to produce offspring; in the male
epididymitis inflammation of the epididymis
orchiepididymitis inflammation of the testes and epididymis
foreskin loose skin covering the end of the penis
testicular mass new tissue growth that appears on one or both of the testes and may be malignant or benign
prostatocystalgia pain in the prostate and bladder
orchitis painful swelling of one or both testes, commonly associated with mumps that develop after puberty
libido psychological and physical drive for sexual activity
vasectomy removal of all or a segment of the vas deferens for sterilization
prostatectomy removal of all or part of the prostate
orchiectomy removal of one or both testicles; also called orchidectomy
circumcision removal of the foreskin, or fold of skin covering the tip of the penis
erectile dysfunction repeated inability to maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse
gamete reproductive cell that contains one-half of the chromosomes required to produce offspring of the species
sphincter ringlike muscle that opens and closes a bod opening to allow or restrict passage through the structure
digital rectal exam screening test that assesses the rectal wall for lesions or evaluates abnormalities of the pelvic area
testicular torsion spontaneous twisting of a testicle within the scrotum, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the affected testicle
phimosis stenosis or narrowing of foreskin so that it cannot be retracted over the glans penis
varicocele swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord, somewhat resembling varicose veins of the legs
hydrocele swelling of the sac surrounding the testes that is typically harmless
semen analysis test that analyses a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization after vasectomy
ejaculation the expulsion of seminal fluid from the male urethra
penis the male external sex organ
anti-impotence agents treat erectile dysfunction by increasing blood flow to the penis resulting in an erection
antivirals treat viral disorders by inhibiting their development
testicular ultrasound US used to assess the contents of the scrotum, including the testicles, epididymis and vas deferens
transrectal ultrasound US using an US probe inserted through the rectum to evaluate the prostate
cystoscope a long, thin flexible instrument with a light at the end used to examine the bladder. It is inserted through the urethra and threaded up into the bladder
urethra a membranous tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
ureter a slender tube that conveys urine from the kidney to the bladder
anuria absence of urine production or output
bladder an expandable hollow organ which acts as a temporary reservoir for urine
hematuria blood in the urine
kidney fist-sized organs in the abdominal cavity whose function is to cleanse or purify the blood
nephropexy fixation of a floating or mobile kidney
urethrotomy incision of a urethral stricture
pyelitis inflammation of the renal pelvis
urethritis inflammation of the urethra
nephrolith kidney stone
indwelling left in place
urethrectomy removal of a urethra
ureterectomy removal of a ureter
renal nuclear scan nuclear scan of the kidneys used to determine their size, shape and position
nonretentsion catheter inserted to drain urine and then removed
straight catheter inserted to drain urine then removed
urologist one who specializes in the study of the urinary system
dysuria painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a "burning sensation" while urinating
residual pertaining to that which is left as a residue
renal pertaining to the kidney
pyuria pus in the urine
kidney transplant replacement of a diseased kidney with one that is supplied by a compatable donor
urgency sensation of the need to void immediately
renal vein structure which carries the blood away from the kidney
urethropexy surgical fixation of the urethra
cystectomy surgical removal of the urinary bladder
stricture the narrowing of an opening, tube or canal, such as the urethra or esophagus
excretion the process of expelling material from the body
hilum the recessed area of the kidney where the ureter and blood vessels enter
catheterization to insert a catheter into a cavity to remove body fluid
elimination to remove, get rid of, exclude; also to pass urine from the bladder or stool from the bowel
pH symbol that expresses alkalinity or acidity of a solution
urochrome urine colour
urinalysis urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic evaluation
bladder ultrasonography US produces images of the bladder to measure pre- and post void residual volume, and potentially identifying incomplete bladder emptying
urethroscopy visual examination of the urethra
micturition voiding
epididymis a single, tightly coiled tube above each testis that stores sperm after it leave the seminiferous tubules
anorchism absence of one/both testicles; also called anorchia or anorchidism
prostatitis acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate
gynecomastia enlargement of breast tissues in the male
prostatectomy excision of part or all of the prostate gland
transurethral resection of the prostate excision of the prostate gland by inserting a special endoscope through the urethra and into the bladder to remove small pieces of tissue from the prostate gland
cryptorchidism failure of the testes to descend into the scrotal sac prior to birth
Created by: spencertasha