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A/P Notes

contractility the ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force
excitability the capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus
extensibility the ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
What do muscles do? help produce heat essential for maintenance of normal body temperature
epimysium skeletal muscle that is surrounded by connective tissue sheath
fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium and it surrounds and separates muscle
perimysium loose connective tissue
muscle cells muscle fibers
endomysium the outer connective tissue that surrounds each fiber
myofibrils threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other
What are the 2 major types of protein fibers? actin and myosin myofilaments
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments: 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments: bundles of minute golf clubs
sarcomeres highly ordered units joined end to end to form the myofibril
resting membrane potential the change difference across a membrane
action potential the brief reversal back of the charge
motor neutrons are nerve cells that carry action potential to skeletal muscle fibers
neuromusclular junction or synapse where each branch that connects to the muscle
motor unit they form a single muscle and they are a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal the enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell membrane
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber in between the muscle cell and terminal
How does synaptic vesicles work with the acetylcholine? it diffuses across the synaptic cleft and blinds to the postsynaptic terminal causing a change in the postsynaptic cell
acetylcholinesterase the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft between the neuron and muscle cell is rapidly broken down by an enzymes
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments during contraction
muscle twitch is a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers
threshold a level: at which point the muscle fiber will contract maximally
What is this whole process called? all-or-none response
lag phase time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and beginning of a contraction
contraction phase the time during contraction
relaxation phase the time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recruitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
What is ATP needed for? it is needed for energy for muscle contraction
What does ATP stand for? Adenosine triphosphate
How is ATP produced? it is produced in the mitochondria
ATP is short-lived and unstable? true
What does ADP stand for? Adenosine diphosphate
It is not necessary for muscle cells to constantly produce ATP? False
creatine phosphate high energy molecule
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt is the amount of oxygen needed in chemical reaction to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells
muscle fatigue is the result when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
What are the 2 types of muscle contractions? isometric and isotonic
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscle of the body for long periods of time
fast twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin is the most stationary end of the muscle
insertion is the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
belly the portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover when one muscle plays a major role
Where is the H Zone located? its located between the A Bands
What is the line in between the H Zone? M line
occipitofrontalis raises the eyebrows
orbicularis oculi closes the eyelids
orbicularis oris puckers the lips
What are the two kissing muscles? orbicularis oris and buccinator
buccinator flattens the cheeks
zygomaticus smiling
levator labi superioris sneering
depressor anguli oris frowning
What is another word for chewing? mastication
Name the two major muscles in mastication. masseter and temporalis
tongue and swallowing muscle is important in speech and mastication
What are the two types of tongue muscles? extrinstic and instrinstic
extrinstic tongue muscle moves the tongue
instrinstic tongue muscle changes the shape of the tongue
What is the neck muscle? sternocleidomastoid
sternocleidomastoid rotates the neck
What is the band located on the outer part near the Z Line? I Band
What does the A Band do? extends the length of the myosin
Each Z Line is an attachment site for actin. True
What are the four major functional characteristics? contractibility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity
Created by: ashhy16