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Adult Medicine


1. causes of normocytic anemia are? Anemia of chronic disease, marrow failure, and renal failure
2. causes of loss or destruction of erythrocytes? Hemolysis and acute blood loss
3. Can reticulocyte count be used to make distinction between hemolysis and acute blood loss? yes
4. Increased reticulocytes indicate what? Increased marrow erythropoesis
5. How is a newly released reticulocyte identified? Reticulum of RNA which disappears in 24 hours
6. what is anemia of chorninc dx? Patients with cancer, infection, inflammation, commonly have a mild to moderate anemia caused by red cell underproduction.
7. Anemia of chronic disease is normally normocytic? Yes
8. What is an example of anemia of chronic disease with microcytosis? Abnormal iron metabolism
1. what is the largest portion of the peripheral blood cell mass? Erythrocytes
2. What do erythrocytes stain? They stain eosinophilic – orange red, round, central pallor, no nucleus
3. What % of abnormal cells can there be to have normal smear? Less than 10% usually show abnormalities in size, shape, color
4. what creates the central pallor of RBC? The concavo-concave shape of disc
5. how is hypochromia determined? When the central pallor is more than 1/3 of the diameter
6. how is hyperchromia determined? Central pallor is absent (spherocyte) or very small
7. Where is hyperchromia found? In hereditary spherocytosis
8. Erythrocyte inclusions are what? When there’s no uniformity in cytoplasmic staining, always pathological
9. What are the redblood cell parameters? HHEERRE
H hgb
H hct
E erythrocyte count,
E erythrocyte indices,
R reticulocyte count,
R RBC production,
E erythrocyte sedimentation rate ESR
10. What can be deduced from MCV values? Microcity, normocity, macrocity
11. What is deduced from MCH values? Hypochromicity or normochromicity
12. Possible causes of increase in ESR? Anemias, macrocytosis, elevated fibrinogen, multiple myeloma
13. Causes of diminished ESR? Polycythemia, acanthocytosis, microcytosis
14. What is an acanthocyte? an abnormal red blood cell having variously shaped protoplasmic projections
15. What is spherocyte? a more or less globular red blood cell that is characteristic of some hemolytic anemias
16. What is anisocytosis? variation in size of cells and especially of the red blood cells (as in pernicious anemia)
17. What is basophilic stippling? Fine basophilic dots are distributed over the entire erythrocyte, indicating remnants of RNA
18. Where’s basophilic stippling seen? Seen with increased erythropoeisis as in typical hemolysis or after replacement therapy in neutritional deficiency. It is observed in lead poisoning.
19. What is howell jolly body? Howell-Jolly bodies are blue to violet, round,refractile inclusions in erythrocytes and are usually < 0.5 µm in diameter. They represent nuclear remnants. They are can be seen at the edge of the cell, and there is usually only one present.
20. Why does howell jolly body occur? Howell-Jolly bodies occur with nuclear maturation defects (e.g. megaloblastic anemia), with accelerated erythropoiesis (e.g. hemolytic anemia) as well as after splenectomy or functional asplenia.
21. What is Pappenheimer bodies? Pappenheimer bodies are fine-grained inclusions which are visible with Wright staining. Erythrocytes with these types of inclusions are called siderocytes
22. Where do Pappenheimer bodies occure? Siderocytes are an indication of an iron utilization disorder. They occur with sideroblasic anemia, thalassemia and other severe anemias
23. What is Heinz bodies? Heinz bodies are composed of denatured hemoglobin and are attached to the cell membrane. They can only be found in supravitally-stained blood films
24. Where do Heinz bodies occur? After chemical insult, in thalassemias and in irreversibly sickled erythrocytes.
Created by: sap_213