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History test 9-11

chapter 9-11 test

1st christian of record, martyered for his faith, stoned to death Stephan
son of Zebedee, 1st apostle to meet a martyrs death, captured during reign of Herod Agrippa (beheaded) James
preached in Asia, killed by Idol worshiping priest philip
tax collector before christ's call; arrested in Ethiopia,nailed to ground and beheaded Matthew
head of Church in Jerusalem, arrested under ananious, brought to top of temple, pushed off, broke legs, prayed for persecutors, clubbed his head james the Less
replacement for Judas, sent to Ethiopia to preach, beheaded Matthias
led wife of roman gov. to Lord, crucified on x shaped cross and preached to passer-bys for 3 days, Andrew
arrested during 8 yrs of Nero, passover, hooked and dragged through city Mark
crucified upside down peter
beheaded during time of nero Paul
Killed in persia, crucified Jude
arrested by armenian king, beaten with rods, crucified upside down, filleted alive, beheaded withax Bartholomew
arrested in india, tortured with red hot plates, cast in furnace but didn't burn, speared through in mouth of furnace Thomas (doubting)
died in greece, 84 yrs old, hanged from olive tree Luke
exiled on Isle of Patmos, died of natural causes, poisoned, caldron of boiling oil,wrote Revelation John
canon of scripture completed, all 27 books of NT had been written AD 100
Said "blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church" Tertullian
1st Persecution (burns rome, kills peter and paul) Nero
2nd Persecution (saw himself as God, exiled john to patmos) Domitian
vast galleries beneath city of Rome that hid many Christians catacombs
3rd persecution Trajan
Under him profession of Christianity became a capital crime Trajan
martyrs under Trajan: -Now I can begin to be a disciple -Roman soldier wouldn't partake in pagan soldier rituals -burned at stake, wouldn't burn so stabbed to death, blood put out fire Ignatius Eustachius Plycarp
4th persecution Marcus Aurelius
Martyrs under Marcus Aurelius: -scourged and beheaded -tortured, " I am a christian, among us no evil is done. Justin Martyer Blandina
5th Persecution Septimius Severus
2 martyrs under Septimius Severus Irenaeus Perpetua and Felicitas
6th persecution (2yrs severe) Maximinus Thrax
7th Persecution Decius
required all inhabitants of empire to sacrifice to ancient gods and obtain certificates from roman gov. verifying that they had made the required sacrifice Decius
martyrs under Decius: -boyfriend saves her, gets captured, she turns herself in and they both die -stretched in stack, christian philosopher from alexandria, mutilated and died later Theodora Origen
8th persecution (captured later by Persian and used as footstool) martyr cyprian Valerian
9th persecution Aurelian
10th Persecution (worst) Diocletion and co emperor Maximian
outlawed Christianity,killed Thebian Legion in Gaul after they wouldn't kill Christians Diocletion
issued the ? AD 313 that extended legal protection and recognition to Christians throughout empire Constantine Edit of Milan
ante nicene fathers ignatius, polycarp, papias
Phil 4:3 commended by Apostle Paul clement of Rome
those who attempted to reasonably defend Christianity against pagan defamation apologists
greatest of apologists, presented to Antonius Pius, one other one Justin Martyr, Aristides
wrote ? - the 1st harmony of the Gospels, proving superiority of Christianity over greek philosophy Tatian Address to the Greeks
wrote "Against All Heresies" to go against Gnosticism Irenaeus
contended against monarchianism (denied doc. of trinity) 1st to use term "trinity" Tertullian
wrote 1st book of systematic theology in early church Origen
Arian controversy (denied deity of Christ) Athanasian creed-addresses that Christ is God Athanasius
completed common bible in peoples own tongue, latin vulgate Jerome
greatest of church fathers, wrote Confessions (biography, and ? - the 1st systematic Christian philosophy of history Augustine of hippo, City of God
Means I believe in Latin Creed
under him, Christianity became the only legal faith, state religion of Roman Empire Theodosius I
Importance of the Byzantine Empire 1. time capsule 2. stopped Islam 3. Fell from neglect
divided Roman empire Diocletian
converts to christian and movies capital to new rome Constantine
time, permanent division under Theodosius 395
takes empire to initial glory Justinian 1
new capital (constantinouple) moved rome to byzantius by ? and named it new rome Constantine
1st great leader of the byzantine Empire, restores Roman glory to empire greatest achievement ? Justinian Roman Law -Justinian code
most magnificent church building of early middle ages and greatest achievement of byzantine architecture Cathedral of Hagia Sophia
Justinian's gifted general Belisarius
iconoclastic emperor(Iconoclastic controversy-image destroyer). beats back Arabs(Islam) great general responsible for saving Constantinople during the second siege Leo III
a byzantine invention similar to a flamethrower greek fire
abstract, simplified image or picture of Christ, mary or saint Icon
led a restoration of Byzantium's power, pushed back muslims to asia minor Basil I
conquered the Bulgar(slayer), Byzantine empire was at its greatest height since Justinian the great Basil II
1071- won major victory over byzantines at battle of manzikert Seljuk Turks
1204 Venetian's sack Constantinople Fourth Crusade
the conqueror who defeats Constantinople, Fall of the Byzantine Empire, May 29, 1453 Mohammed II
Last emperor of Byzantine Constantine XI
Contributions of Byzantines Roman Law, Paintings and Mosaics, greek orthodox church
Apostle to slavs, made the ? Cyril, Cyrillic Alphabet
greatest contrib. preservation of the Greek new Test. Byzantine text
declared that every church must agree with the church of Rome Irenaeus
Irenaeus and other church leaders try to justify ground mastery of bishops over churches with this idea; Christ appoints apostles, apostles appoint biships successors appoint successors Apostolic succession
Peter is 1st pope, founded church of Rome, (pope-latin for papa or father) Petrine theory
Valentinian 3rd officially recognized him as supreme over the Roman Church, turned back Attila the Hun Leo I
Issued doctrine of ? -separating civil and ecclesiastical authority and making the pope an the bishops supreme over all human rulers relating to God. Pope Gelasius I two swords
1st medieval pope Gregory I
The idea that bread and wine is the real body of Christ in the hands of the priest transubstantiation
means means of grace sacraments
name for a roman church service mass
withdrawing from society to live in solitude monasticism
earliest monks living in wilderness in complete solitude hermits
religious communities isolated form the rest of society Monasteries
lived like other monks except that they preached and did missionary work outside the monasteries, 2 orders- the Franciscans and Dominicans Friers
1st great Frankish military and political, 498, loses battle of Tolbiac and professed his conversion to Christianity Clovis
Do nothing kings, Clovis's descendents of rulers Merovingian
chief official of the royal household, had the real ruling power mayor of the palace
" the hammer" most famous mayor the palace, halted muslim (moors) invasion of Europe at 732 Battle of Tours, victories prevented weastern europe from being swallowed up in a muslim empire Charles Martel
king of franks, starting Carolingian line of Frankish kings, Church went from legitimizing ruler to choosing one, fights Lombards, donation of papal states - giving land to church Pepin the Short
defeats saxons, christmas day AD 800- became Charles Augustus, emperor of the Romans (church is now making emperors) Charlemagne
means the kings envoys, judges Missi dominici
became basis for modern handwriting styles as well as the roman typeface Carolingian miniscule
after the death of Louis the Pious (Charlemagne's son, 843 - ? sets the stage for modern Europe (France and Germany (divided empire into parts Treaty of verdun
begins the saxon line of kings henry the Fowler
1st holy roman emperor (lay investure), crowned in 962 Otto the Great
emperors and kings to choose biships and other church officials lay investure
started Salian line of kings Henry IV
Hohenstaufen line, coined title holy roman empire Frederic Barbarossa I
single most powerful institution in western Europe papacy
monk adviser of Nicholas II, prohibited custom of lay investiture Gregory 7th (monk name - Hildebrand)
under him papacy allowed the zenith of its power of influence, Fourth Lateran council (transubstantiation)Holy office of Inquisition- Power to inquire and judge matters of heresy Innocent III
Created by: Minika Rose